© J. Glenn Friesen 2003-2007
Glossary of Terms
The Archimedean point is where we choose to stand in order to form the idea of the totality of meaning. This cannot be done apart from a view of the origin of both totality and specialty of meaning (NC I, 8). Christian philosophy takes a transcendent standpoint Immanence philosophy takes its standpoint within temporal reality and therefore absolutizes part of reality.
Our choice of Archimedean point determines insight into the structure of the cosmos and of human experience, and the true character of our selfhood. (“Het dilemma voor het christelijk wijsgeerig denken,” Philosophia Reformata 1 (1936), 7). This choice is a religious choice, in which theoretical thought is concentrated on that which the thinking selfhood accepts as the deeper root and self-sufficient Origin of the cosmos.
It is of course taken from the saying of Archimedes that if he was given a place to stand (pou sto or pou= stw) outside the world on which to place his lever, he could move the world.
The whole Idea of standpoint is related to the Idea of 'standing.' It occurs in many forms in Dooyeweerd: en-stasis, dis-stasis, apo-stasis, sys-stasis, ana-stasis, standing in the Truth and standing in falsehood.
Immanence-philosophies seek their starting point from something within time, and this involves them in necessarily dialectical Ground-Motives. Immanence philosophy includes Christian philosophies that deny the supratemporal heart, the religious root that transcends time.
Dooyeweerd says that Christian philosophy seeks its Archimedean point above time instead of seeking it within time like immanence philosophy (Verburg 155)
Steen relates Dooyeweerd's idea of Archimedean point to the idea that our supratemporal heart exists in the aevum. Because of this "created eternity," we have eternity consciousness, we get God’s point of view; we get distance from the temporal earthly cosmos, or as Kuyper said, we obtain a standing in a non-cosmos, we have an Archimedean point from which to get an overview. Kuyper: Encyclopaedie der Heilige Godgeleerdheid, II, 59. (Steen, 210). A partial translation of this work, Encyclopedia of Sacred Theology, is online at [http://scdc.library.ptsem.edu/mets/mets.aspx?src=encyclopedia1898], and the reference appears to be at p. II, 113 of the translation:
In the paragraph I have cited from Kuyper above, note that sin makes it impossible to stand in this Archimedean point. Dooyeweerd says that we can stand in the truth because we in our selfhood transcend the temporal "earthly" cosmos (NC II, 593). Such standing in the truth is a prerequisite for insight into the (temporal) horizon of experience (NC II, 564).
Note also that for Kuyper, the Archimediean point is outside the cosmos. He seems to be using 'cosmos' in the same way that Dooyeweerd does–'cosmos' is restricted to temporal creation, which Dooyeweerd also refers to as the 'earthly.' The 'heavenly' standpoint is outside the cosmos, but still part of creation.
What about Steen's statement about "eternity consciousness?" A reference by Dooyeweerd that would support this can be found in his 1923 article "Roomsch-katholieke en Anti-revolutionaire Staatkunde." Through the grace and redemption through Jesus Christ, our intuition and thought [schouwen en denken] is again directed to the Divine giving of meaning, and we again intuit [schouwen] the world "sub specie aeternitatis," in the light of eternity [in het licht der eeuwigheid] (Verburg 61).
Nevertheless, we must emphasize that Dooyeweerd distinguishes the aevum from God's eternity, although that distinction may have come only later, and seems to be related to Baader's distinctions of eternal, supratemporal and temporal.
Verburg says that Dooyeweerd first uses the idea of Archimedean point in a 1928 article, “Beroepsmisdaad en strafvergelding in ‘t licht der wetsidee” in Antirevolutionaire Staatkunde (1928), p. 425 (Verburg 120).
In a 1932 article, Dooyeweerd says that the law-Idea is the Idea of the deeper unity of the law-spheres. We can compare the law-spheres only after we have discovered their supratemporal deeper unity in the Archimedean point of philosophy. We cannot seek the Archimedean point in logic, or what Dooyeweerd here calls 'logos' (“De Theorie van de Bronnen van het Stellig Recht in het licht der Wetsidee,” Handelingen van de Vereeniging voor Wijsbegeerte des Rechts, XIX (1932) from Mensch en Maatschappij, cited by Verburg).
In his Divergentierapport [Report of Divergences], D.H.Th. Vollenhoven said that Herman Dooyeweerd's emphasis on the supratemporal might lead people to connect his philosophy to the ideas of Jung. Although Dooyeweerd certainly does emphasize the supratemporal selfhood, and also writes about the unconscious, I believe that there are also significant differences from Jung's psychology. This can be seen in Jung's denial of the Archimedean point, an idea that is important for Dooyeweerd's view of the self. Jung says,
However, Jung may only have been objecting to an Archimedean point outside of the psyche (See Psychology and Relgion, 1938, para. 140, fn 27). The psyche itself does act as an Archimedean point. In comparison with the temporal ego, the supratemporal psyche does provide an Archimedean point from which we can view our suffering This Archimedean point outside the ego is "the objective standpoint of the self, from which the ego can be seen as a phenomenon. Without the objectivation of the self the ego would remain caught in hopeless subjectivity and would only gyrate round itself."("Transformation Symbolism in the Mass," CW 11, para. 427-428).
Perhaps in denying an Archimedean point outside of the psyche, Jung was reacting against Freud, who in 1908 had searched for an Archimedean point by which individuals could be understood against a universal pattern. See The Freud-Jung Letters: The Correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung (W. McGuire, Ed.: R. Manheim & R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974.
Although both Jung and Dooyeweerd emphasize a supratemporal selfhood, they use the term in different ways. Jung's approach involves a reciprocal approach between the selfhood and a temporal ego, whereas Dooyeweerd follows Franz von Baader in the idea of the supratemporal heart as our true selfhood, for which our body is the temporal instrument. Perhaps we can make some analogy between a temporal ego and the temporal act structure, which for Dooyewerd is one of the four enkaptically interlaced individuality structures that together make up the body. Our transcendent selfhood should not be identified with any of these structures. It should be noted that Dooyeweerd denies that the selfhood can be an "object" that can be investigated by psychology or any other theoretical discipline; rather, the supratemporal selfhood is the ontical condition for any theoretical thought at all. Here, Dooyeweerd follows Baader's critique of the autonomy of theoretical thought. Although he is sometimes ambiguous, Jung generaly remains within the Kantian acceptance of such autonomy. In my 2005 series of lectures on Jung, I argue that Baader provides a clearer explanation of several ideas where Jung is ambiguous or incorrect (such as his interpretation of Boehme and Eckhart, particularly with respect to the issues of God and evil, and whether the dynamic movement within God is to be pantheistically identified with development of man's consciousness). I believe that Dooyeweerd follows and expands upon Baader's tradition of Christian theosophy, and that these ideas provide the basis for significant insights in psychology.
The idea of an Archimedean point is found in Franz von Baader. In a letter dated January 2, 1825, he writes how, in seeking such a point, Archimedes was smarter than most of those moralists who try to free us from the world without a foundation outside of or above the world. Werke 15, 428. And at he compares this idea of an Archimedean point to what Christ says, that only he who is from heaven can ascend to heaven.(Werke 10, 262).
Revised Sept 20/08