Volume 2, Number 1 / November, 1998
THIS ISSUE FEATURES THE
ACCEPTED ABSTRACTS FOR THE 1ST COLD REGIONS SPECIALTY CONFERENCE OF THE COLD
REGIONS ENGINEERING DIVISION OF THE CANADIAN SOCIETY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING
SCHEDULED FOR JUNE 1999 IN
ABSTRACTS FOR THE CONFERENCE MAY STILL BE SUBMITTED FOR CONSIDERATION TO THE EDITOR OF CRYOFRONT.
CANADIAN FORCES DEPLOYED
Captain G. Brent Thornhill, B.Sc. (Civ.
Major Patrick J. Heffernan, Ph.D.
Canadian Forces personnel have been building temporary deployed camps for
many years around the world to support operations in
Short construction times, low life cycle costs, minimized maintenance efforts, low-skill set personnel define the focus of deployed camp planning and implementation. Expedient construction is required to support military operations in support of operations other than war, where commanders expect and demand full facility use in a very compressed time period. Cost comparisons to repairing permanent infrastructure have demonstrated that in time periods of less than normal use/design lives, those temporary facilities offer significant cost savings. This is especially true when antiquated infrastructure must be repaired or improved upon to meet Canadian standards (health, safety, fire and environmental). Maintaining infrastructure must allow minimal sustainment costs to be realized and to reduce support personnel levels. Training user personnel to construct, maintain and tear down similar infrastructure develops rapid response to starting the operation, repairs to snags and decommissioning of the camp, regardless of the weather or threat. This minimizes engineer requirements on site, thereby allowing direct supervision of the camp construction versus being the main implementation force. Additionally, user/owner and maintenance personnel can ensure environmental compliance with respect to fuel handling, wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal and noise can be met without difficulty.
Facilities planning for military operations have strict guidelines on area
use, utilities, maintenance and protection of personnel. Many of deployments
demand the same high standards of living conditions regardless of the climatic
Site considerations for deployed camps require thorough knowledge of site access, soils, topography, fire prevention, roads, solar orientation, predominant winds, water sources, site security and environmental concerns. Engineering services, in broad terms, of electrical power generation and distribution, water treatment, storage and distribution, wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal, fuels storage and dispensing, heating, ventilating and fire protection. Engineering decisions regarding road construction and maintenance, personnel movement, airfield support and maintenance, warehousing, evacuation planning, medical treatment, and hazardous material handling must be addressed within life expectancy of the camp, camp population/composition and hours of operation.
Captain G. Brent Thornhill, B.Sc. (Civ.
Major Patrick J. Heffernan, Ph.D.
A permanent facility within the Canadian High Arctic to house 48 personnel
for all seasons and conduct support operations across the upper reaches of
Ellesmere Island was required in Eureka (80°00'N
85°54'W). Support to communications, resupply aircraft, survival and sovereignty operations were
considered to be the main provisos for the facility. Design conditions within
Specific user requirements of the facility were numerous, including 95% reliability of all systems. Medical, airfield and communication support for the surrounding area. Food preparation and storage facilities to support 48 personnel with 28 days of food storage. Exercise and entertainment facilities to encourage off-duty interaction and physical fitness to reduce stress. Utilities operations and general operations of the facility could not depend on attendant maintenance personnel. In fact unskilled labourers and general military skills were the only skill sets available for the operation of the facility whilst occupied. All utility systems had to be able to be turned on and off by the same personnel who occupied the facility. Environmental considerations included wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal and sensitivity to indigenous animals. Survivability of personnel and stores had to be ensured.
Building design had to have total flexibility within the envelope to permit any possible renovations within the building without structural design changes. An integrated expansion capability within the foundation and substructure frame in the event of future expansion was integrated into the building. The utility design was required to meet the needs of 48 personnel with minimal attendance for 3 storm days. More specifically within the envelope, the building had to hold potable water sufficient for 48 personnel on a low-water consumption rate. Self-draining water and wastewater systems improves the survivability of piping and fixtures. An aerobic digester and facultative lagoon forms a minimal attendance wastewater treatment system to permit year-round operation. Electrical distribution of the structure was designed to minimize non-engineer (tradesmen) alterations while maximizing high voltage distribution to increase reliability of critical circuits. Ventilation zone design with a crawl space plenum permits flexibility of use for the 4 defined living areas through heat exchangers, perimeter floor vents and a centralized return system. A boiler heating system (polypropylene glycol-water) design, coupled to the ventilation system permits overall zone control with individual room baseboard heaters. In order to achieve a high comfort level and expedient construction, the architectural finish and accompanying furnishings were selected to be calming and comfortable to personnel while allowing rapid erection with minimal finishing.
INFLUENCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE
By P.T. Srinivasan, T. Viraraghavan and J. Bergman
The toughest treatment period for many water treatment plants is in the cold
weather months. This is mainly due to a number of factors such as slower
chemical reaction rates and an increased water viscosity at the lower
temperatures. The viscosity of water basically doubles as the water temperature
changes from the warm summer months to cold winter months. This in reality
implies that at colder months i) ineffective
coagulation can occur; ii) higher chemical demands may be needed; iii) slower
settling rates of particles can be expected; and iv) filters tend to produce
high turbid waters. In
The objective of the present study is to examine the influence of
temperature on the performance of Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Plant (BPWTP).
The BPWTP is a surface water treatment facility supplying water to the
In analyzing the data, the influence of granular activated carbon contactors on the water quality at BPWTP is not taken into account. It is seen that for 1994 to 1996 when the water temperature is less than 5°C (January - March), turbidity removal fluctuates widely in the range of 92 - 80% and when the water temperature increases up to 16°C (in June), relatively increasing trend in turbidity removal (>90%) can be seen. Overall, turbidity removal follows temperature trends. Suspended solids removal follows a similar trend. Percentage dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals at colder months (<5°C) (January - March; November - December) indicated that removals were less (25 - 30%) compared to removals (45 - 65%) during summer months (water temperature 10 - 15°C). During colder months, total aluminum increased after treatment.
This paper will examine the implications of low temperature on the unit operations and processed of BPWTP.
PERFORMANCE OF UASB REACTORS TREATING MUNICIPAL
WASTEWATER UNDER LOW-TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS
Kripa Shankar Singh and T. Viraraghavan
Environmental Systems Engineering,
The feasibility of using upflow anaerobic sludge
blanket systems for the treatment of low-strength dilute municipal wastewater
under low-temperature conditions was investigated for cold region applications.
High-rate upflow anaerobic sludge blanket systems
would be an attractive treatment option for wastewaters generated from remote
and isolated camps, penal institutions, and winter recreation facilities where
connection to municipal sewer systems is either not available or too costly.
Domestic wastewater from these sources is generally discharged poorly treated
to surface waters and the soil resulting in adverse environmental impacts. It is
necessary to provide simple and affordable small treatment systems to alleviate
the unhealthy sanitary condition in these remote areas. Moreover, simple
operation and construction of the UASB systems makes application of the process
feasible for small communities living in remote areas (e.g. Indian Reserves in
In the present investigation, two eight-litre (total volume) UASB reactors
(seeded with anaerobic sludge from the digester at the City of
The average biogas production and methane content ranged from 40 to 1,900 mL/d and 65 to 86% respectively.
Mass balance calculations on COD and sulfur revealed that the recovery of methane in the gas phase was very low compared with soluble COD removals, especially during low-temperature operations. Reasons for low methane recovery can be ascribed to the increased solubility of methane at low temperatures which resulted in more than 50% dissolved in aqueous phase and lost in the effluent. Moreover, a major fraction (30 to 40%) of COD consumed in sulfate reduction would have also caused the reduction in methane production. Digital image analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed the aggregation of biomass which progressed from smooth to flocculent to small granules. The mean size of this aggregated sludge particle ranged from 0.2 to 3.0 mm. Because of good settling characteristics (sludge volume index = 18 mL/g) of these aggregates high sludge retention time could be maintained even at low HRT. This investigation concluded that the UASB systems with some adjustments are technically feasible at a small treatment system for remote camps and small communities in cold regions. The paper will present a design of a UASB treatment system for a small community located in a cold region.
EFFECTIVENESS OF RIGID INSULATION IN ROCK TRENCHES
FOR THERMAL PROTECTION OF BURIED WATER PIPES
Lyne Daigle and Jack Q. Zhao
Residents in most parts of
water pipe freezing, thermal protection, latent heat, rock trench, frost penetration
HEALTHY HOUSE ON-SITE WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
By Robert A. LeCraw, P.Eng., Phone: 905-853-0626 / Fax: 905-853-8807 / E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Rolf Paloheimo, Phone: 416-466-5172 / Fax: 416-466-5173, Bill Fandrick, Phone: 867-669-7078 / Fax: 867-873-2348, Chris Ives
The irony of the North is the perception that the abundance of fresh surface
water ensures ample supply for communities, resource based industry, and camps.
The reality is much different. The adequate treatment and delivery of potable
water and the environmentally acceptable collection, treatment and disposal of
sewage can be a tremendous financial burden. The cost of delivering water to a
residence in the
Substantial savings in water and servicing costs can be realized through the
use of recycled water. Canada Mortgage and Housing, the National Research
Council, and the Government of the
AN ESSENTIAL SERVICE IN COLD REGIONS DEVELOPMENT
Christopher Wright, Mariport Group Ltd.
Without effective and economic marine transportation, many promising cold
region ventures could not be developed. Typically base metal operations will
only go ahead if there is marine transportation available to take ore or
concentrates to market. Oil and gas ventures suffer much the same problem
unless, like the
The paper will present a series of brief case studies on cold region marine operations. It will also look at the economics of working with ice capable ships, and risk factors associated with navigation in ice. The potential impact of the Polar Code will be addressed, as will the new ice regime system introduced by Canadian Coast Guard.
Case studies will include: Annual Canadian Eastern Arctic Community Resupply; US North Slope Oil Project; Coronation Gulf Concentrate Transport; Lone Gull Uranium Mine; Polaris Mine; Voisey=s Bay Mine; Canadian Oil and Gas Projects; and Russian Oil and Condensate Transportation.
ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS FOR WATER AND
ACCESS IN THE
K.R. Johnson, M.A.Sc., P.Eng.
B.C. Grieco, P.Eng.,
A study to investigate alternate, less costly access systems for below
ground water and sewer main servicing was undertaken by UMA Engineering Ltd. on
behalf of the Government of the Northwest Territories. The system most commonly
used in permafrost areas of the
The study was based on a decision analysis of a number of alternative
concepts. Information for the concepts was wasted on a survey of infrastructure
access systems in
A total of 17 alternatives were evaluated using a Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis. The evaluation indicated that the three highest ranking alternatives for access to sewer and water mains (in decreasing rank) are:
PERFORMANCE OF SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN
CAMPS AND COMMUNITIES OF THE
Ken Johnson, P.Eng.,
A variety of sewage treatment systems are utilized for camps and communities
Information on the performance of these systems has historically been compiled on an inconsistent basis depending upon the available resources, and the opportunity for compliance monitoring by the regulatory authorities. A recent compilation of new system performance data, and historical data from past reports has provided an opportunity to compare the relative performance of various systems. Although the information is limited, it identifies the potential limitations to technologies such as conventional mechanical systems and wetlands systems, and the potential reliability of constructed lagoon systems. The information also defines a database upon which to build for future cold region waste management technology decision making for the regulatory authorities, the mining sector, communities, and the environmental consulting sector.
Volume 2, Number 2 / December, 1998
THIS ISSUE FEATURES THE AN
ARTICLE ON THE RAGLAN MINE IN
The article is edited from the Canadian Consulting Engineer, Nov/Dec 1997
THE RAGLAN MINE WILL ALSO
BE FEATURED IN A TECHNICAL PRESENTATION BY ATCO STRUCTURES INC. AT THE 1ST COLD
REGIONS SPECIALTY CONFERENCE OF THE COLD REGIONS ENGINEERING DIVISION OF THE
CANADIAN SOCIETY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING SCHEDULED FOR JUNE 1999 IN
Frost-shattered boulders dominate the moon-like landscape about 90 kilometres south of
Here at Katinniq, 61 degrees 39 minutes north
latitude on Quebec's Ungava Peninsula, Bechtel Quebec
Ltd. is providing engineering, procurement, and construction management
services for Falconbridge Limited's Raglan Mine. The
work includes building a road and three bridges; a nickel-ore
concentrator; a dam to retain spring runoff; and storage facilities to
hold supplies and nickel concentrate during periods when severe arctic weather
makes access to the site impossible. The conditions are challenging: at an
elevation of 600 to 700 metres above sea level, the area's climate is colder
and more brutal than
The port of
In 1998, Falconbridge will be reaping the rewards of its half-billion dollar investment ($385 million for construction and $120 million for mine development) as the mine starts processing 800,000 metric tonnes of nickel ore per year and producing up to 130,000 metric tonnes of nickel-copper concentrate annually, valued at about U.S. $100 million. While typical mines have a life span of up to 15 years, this mine may be around for 25 years because of its rich ore bodies.
Technically speaking, the problems of design were the same as elsewhere, but they were compounded by further constraints. All the piles for the foundation work were fairly simple, except the temperature of the rock is at °C. Special concrete and grout to hydrate and set at these sub-zero temperatures was developed for the project.
The impact of global warming, and the associated risk with the various
structures of the project, was also used in the
geotechnical analyses, assuming that there could be a half-degree Celsius
increase in temperature every 10 years. While the Raglan project has a
potential life span of 25 years, the permafrost engineering used a design life
of 50 years. Since Raglan is the first
This is not the first time that mining operations have flourished on the
In 1996, the water reservoir (for domestic and process use); and the accommodation, service (vehicle maintenance) and, administration buildings were completed. The accommodation complex, designed to serve 300 mine workers, has a central area with a cafeteria, full recreational facilities including a games room, exercise area, bowling alley and a whirlpool, and is connected to the service and office building by an elevated walkway.
The maintenance of the permafrost was taken into account in the design of these buildings using the common practice of building on pile foundations. A pile foundation system was used for the accommodation complex, which rests on stilts one to two metres above the ground surface. This separation allows the wind to circulate under the structure, preventing snow build-up and dispersing the heat from the building to keep the permafrost layer from melting, and causing settlement problems. The service and administration building's floor is a concrete slab resting on a gravel pad with ducts installed beneath the building to prevent melting of the permafrost. When the air temperature is colder than the ground temperature, large fans direct colder ambient air through these ducts to keep the permafrost layer intact.
Permafrost may also be a help rather than a hindrance in some cases. The design of the dikes for containing acid-generating waste rock incorporated permafrost as a low permeability barrier.
During the summer of 1996, while the piles and foundation for the ore
concentrator were constructed at Katinniq, the
construction of 12 modules - two for the diesel-fuelled power plant and ten for
the ore concentrator - began at a construction yard on the
Once the modules arrived in Deception Bay, they were moved to 24-axle flat-bed trailers, which took more than two days to make the 95 kilometre journey to the Raglan site, travelling at two to three km/hr. Concerns about high winds causing problems with transporting the 20 metre tall structures turned out to be unnecessary, and the modules arrived six days ahead of schedule.
The Raglan Mine is a modern example of Cold Region resource development, which takes into account the environmental and social aspects, as well as strictly technical aspects of working in a northern latitude.
Volume 2, Number 3 / February, 1999
THIS ISSUE FEATURES AN EDITED
The complete article was
John H. England, Arthur S. Dyke and Gregory H.R. Henry
John H. England
is a professor in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences,
Arthur S. Dyke
is a geologist who lives in Pakenham,
Gregory H.R. Henry is a professor
in the Department of Geography, The
THE FEDERAL ROLE
The most telling sign of diminishing commitment to northern research in
In the process of downsizing federal science,
Arctic research was especially hard hit because it was, and is, seen to be
more expensive. Many managers seem to have surrendered to this charge. Yet, we
are unaware of any comparative cost-benefit studies of
What are the long-term costs to
Expense has not been the only objection. "Why work in the Arctic? No one lives there," said a former head of the Geological Survey of Canada, who - apparently on no stronger argument that this - rendered all Arctic research in that agency basically irrelevant. It is seemingly impossible to defend a program against such a stance, or at least, in this case, defence was unsuccessful. Unfortunately, our impression is that the success of Arctic research in Canada has relied all too often on the good graces of a handful of individuals who were favourably disposed towards the importance of the Arctic. Such reliance left it vulnerable to those who were not.
There is also a fundamental ethical issue here regarding Canada's relationship to its Arctic territories: is it appropriate for Canada to take an interest in Arctic science and in the environment only when opportunities for exploitation of natural resources by southern or foreign interests loom large, or only when such exploitation seems necessary for the good of the nation? This is a rather colonial attitude. Yet the current spurning by federal agencies of long-term Arctic science, not so much by choice as by economic necessity, sends exactly this message. Most appreciate that basic scientific problems, including those like global change with particularly strong and recognized Arctic relevance, can only be addressed in the long term. Still, acceptance of this fact does not secure support for the research.
In comparison to our neighbour to the south, a greater proportion of Canadian science has been done in federal laboratories. Assuming this is undesirable, a new balance might have been struck by shifting resources to the universities, using a carefully planned strategy designed not to diminish our overall capacity. Unfortunately, however, Canadian universities and federal science departments experienced downsizing simultaneously. The combined result has been a massive retirement and deportation of Canada's scientific human resource base. One can only be confused, therefore, by statements in the last federal budget that announced an impending shortfall of scientific talent a decade down the road, while deliberate steps continue to be taken to reduce Canada's science capacity.
The funding crunch for university research has resulted in a steep decline in applications for logistical support to PCSP during the 1990s, from a high of 70 projects down to 40 this year. Government projects have declined even more severely, by close to 50%. In 1980, PCSP actually supported 166 field parties and this number grew to a high of 250 parties during that decade.
In the meantime, our established community of northern scientists is aging and retired, or retiring younger. Upcoming researchers face fewer opportunities. As confidence in Canadian prospects of funding and logistical support for northern research continues to erode, it comes as no surprise that few will risk their futures by investing in northern careers. Hence, academic recruitment in Canada for northern research has reached alarmingly low levels and a compelling option, if not a necessity, for anyone with northern interests is to head to the United States or Europe. Indeed, few Canadian universities are recruiting Arctic specialists today, possibly because the chances of building a program attractive to the university are so daunting. Or our southern universities themselves may simply have lost interest.
Canada now faces a crises in northern research (and perhaps research in general) that, if left unchecked, will ensure our failure to train and support the next generation of scientists and lead to a collapse of Canadian scientific sovereignty. We will then be unable to meet basic national obligations to adequately monitor, manage, and safeguard our environment, let alone to take a leadership role or to strongly contribute to issues of international importance. It is already much more common to hear science about Canada from others at international meetings than it is to hear Canadian science. But, to be perfectly clear about what we think is wrong here, it is not the attention of our neighbours and friends. Indeed, we suspect that Americans who are sensitive to this issue go out of their way to include Canadians in their programs, allowing the problem to seem less severe than it is.
LEARNING FROM THE FRIENDLY GIANT
While Canada has been dismantling Arctic research, the United States has demonstrated a renewed commitment through rigorous legislation, strong funding, and required interagency cooperation. A comparison of the two countries in Arctic matters reveals American vision towering over Canadian indecision and parsimony, and the consequence is opportunity and leadership versus unemployment and ever-dwindling significance. Surely this cannot be because Arctic research is less relevant to Canada! It is the saddest form of flattery when we are informed that the recent American initiative arose from the pleas of American scientists, familiar with PCSP, who sought, in part, to emulate our success in Arctic research.
In northern matters, Canada suffers even more from a lack of leadership than from a lack of resources. Therefore, given Canada's reluctance to take a fully integrated, leadership role in the Arctic, it is instructive to look closely at what is clearly an extremely progressive American lead.
Anyone concerned with the plight of future direction of northern research in Canada should read the Fifth Biennial Revision (1998-2002) of the U.S. Arctic Research Plan (IARPC, 1997). It is evident that it is "the result of an extensive process of planning, consultation and revision" (p.4). The Plan outlines national needs (nonrenewable and renewable resources, global change, social and environmental issues), a broad range of special focus multiagency research programs, and a host of agency programs. The total interagency funding for fiscal year 1997 was US $172 million, and for 1998 it is US $156 million. A selection of agencies includes the Department of Defence, the Department of the Interior, Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation, which includes the Office of Polar Programs. The multiagency programs stand out for their breadth and depth, and include issues such as risks to the environment and people in the Arctic, surface heat budget of the Arctic Ocean, Beringian systems studies, and Arctic data and information. The multiagency Beringian study could just as easily describe the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, emphasizing that this region is "emerging as a major international arena for interdisciplinary study of scientific issues and global change with historical and modern perspectives". It emphasizes the fundamental importance of "baseline data and monitoring" .
Simply put, the scope, integration, and support for Arctic research in the United States is enormous. And make no mistake, it is based rigorously and thoughtfully upon established principles and objectives. There is no indecision here! No suffocating parsimony. It seems to us that Canada at this point has two choices: rely entirely on the United States for all Arctic science (contracts would probably be welcomed) or seriously acknowledge its own geographic identity and behave accordingly.
WHITHER PCSP: NOT AFFORDABLE AT 20 CENTS PER CAPITA PER YEAR!
It is important here to return to and to make clear the plight of the Polar Continental Shelf Project. It highlights the contrast between U.S. and Canadian Arctic strategies, and it effectively shows the urgency and the extent of our crises.
PCSP, currently celebrating its 40th anniversary, was established by Act of Parliament in 1958, as part of Prime Minister Diefenbaker's "northern vision". It was visionary, it has been gloriously successful, it has fostered most of Canadian Arctic research and assisted non-Canadian research. PCSP started out as a bold and innovative solution to the scientific field requirements for exploring the vast and diverse Canadian Arctic Archipelago and adjacent continental shelf. Its successes, ingenuity, and efficiency are a monument to the dedicated efforts of its directors on behalf of Canadian polar science. It is now entirely a logistical operation, but a seasoned one, based in Ottawa with facilities in Resolute Bay (High Arctic) and Tuktoyaktuk (western Arctic; now dormant). Each spring and summer it has operated chartered aircraft (Twin Otters, helicopters) that provide the coordinated logistical support for staging and evacuating fly (tent) camps widely dispersed throughout the northern mainland and islands. Principally, it has operated north of the Arctic Circle. PCSP supports scientists from both universities and government research agencies who, for the most part, live frugally while investigating everything from archaeology to zoology, to borrow George Hobson's expression. At its peak during the 1970s and 1980s, PCSP had a budget of around Cdn. $6 million, largely dedicated to logistics. Only three years ago, it was further evaluated for its perceived usefulness to its clients: the government evaluators reported that they had never seen such high praise in 30 years of assessment! Despite such glowing recommendation, despite its extremely modest budget (20 cents per Canadian per year at its peak), despite being indispensable to its clients, despite the fact that it makes a Canadian presence in Arctic research possible, and despite its astonishing success in safety and efficiency, its budget has been cut progressively and it now struggles to survive.
Despite the political interest, by 1999 PCSP's
budget for its entire Arctic field operation will drop to about Cdn. $1 million (US $710,000; approaching one-sixth of peak
funding, without correction for inflation). The NSF-funded PALE Project (Paleoecology of Arctic Lakes and Estuaries) has a Steering
Committee budget of US $600,000. Soon PCSP will be able to offer only a meager Cdn. $250,000 (US $178,000) for the entire Canadian
university community. About one-third its level of only three years ago, this
amount would fall within the range of a single modest NSF project. A recent
report from an Arctic institute at an American university lists nearly US $20
million in current research grant holdings for that institution. At Cdn. $1 million per year, PCSP's
logistical operation costs Canadians about 3 cents per citizen per year, less
than the GST on a 50 cent chocolate bar! Compared to the present U.S. Arctic
research commitment, PCSP, which started out so bold and gave us such pride,
now looks like a rusted-out VW Beetle with four flat tires eclipsed by the
gleaming technology of the space shuttle. This contract cannot be dismissed as
due solely to economies of scale; to a large degree, it is due to
The crises for Arctic research in
What we present here echoes the thoughts of many Arctic researchers who are
struggling to find signs of hope on
So where can we go from here? Clearly it is intolerable to languish in our
present state. Therefore, as an idea for discussion by the Canadian Arctic
science community, we resurrect here the proposal that
It should be established by an Act of Parliament, and set firmly upon principles and objectives included in an Arctic Science and Technology Act. International cooperation with other Arctic institutes and agencies would be an implicit objective. We can see no other way to safeguard Arctic research and its essential infrastructures in times of intense funding stress. A Canadian Polar Institute could also play an indispensable role in planning and coordinating future Arctic research.
We emphasize the need to collect, coordinate, and streamline existing Arctic
interests in a new Polar Institute. Coordination of logistics must now be
matched by coordination of research to demonstrate optimum efficiency. To
facilitate the greatest efficiency and expertise in Canadian Arctic interests,
the Institute should house both the PCSP and the Polar Commission. PCSP could
then be fundamentally rejuvenated and tethered to a strong, mandated, research
agenda. The Polar Commission would continue to act as the nation's premier
Arctic-Antarctic policy adviser, and it would continue to promote public
awareness of the North. The Polar Commission would have the added advantage of
continuous and direct access to an active scientific community. Similarly, the
Arctic scientific community would benefit from the broader perspectives of the
Polar Commission, including its First Nations members, who could strongly
influence research agendas. Finally, the Institute would promote appropriate
Volume 2, Number 4 / March, 1999
THIS ISSUE FEATURES THE LIST OF PRESENTATIONS AT THE WORKSHOP ON THE ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SITES IN ARCTIC AND COLD CLIMATES (ARCSACC - 99).
The workshop will be held
The early registration fee
of $150 must be paid by
Check out the workshop website at www.civil.ualberta.ca/arcsacc.
Session 1 - Risk Assessment and Site Characteristics
Session 2 - Contaminant Migration in Permafrost
Session 3 - Mining Contamination and Cleanup
Session 4 - Bioremediation Assessment
Session 5 - Bioremediation Case Studies
Session 6 - Remediation Technologies, and Techniques
Volume 2, Number 5 / April, 1999
THIS ISSUE FEATURES
INFORMATION ON THE 1ST COLD REGIONS SPECIALTY CONFERENCE OF THE CANADIAN
SOCIETY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING SCHEDULED FOR
1ST COLD REGIONS SPECIALTY CONFERENCE OF THE COLD REGIONS ENGINEERING DIVISION OF THE CSCE
The Cold Regions Engineering Division (CRED) of the CSCE has been an official Technical Division of the Society since 1986. The Division has maintained a relatively low profile with regard to technical activities because of the limited human resources of the Division members. The Division has, however, participated in the publication of several milestone documents, most significantly the Cold Regions Utilities Manual. The Manual was updated in 1996 through the lead efforts of Dr. Dan Smith in association with the ASCE Technical Council on Cold Regions Engineering.
The 1st Cold Regions Specialty Conference of the Cold Regions Engineering
Division represents a milestone event for the Division in undertaking a high
profile activity within the Society. This is also a very exciting time for a
Cold Regions Specialty Conference to occur in
The idea for this conference may be traced back to a relaxing evening in
August, 1997 at the Department of National Defence
(DND), Eureka Camp in the high Arctic (80 degrees North Latitude). Jean Heroux and Ken Johnson were enjoying after dinner
conversation with the Camp staff, and marveling over the local activity
associated with the Camp construction. This included the reconstruction of the
DND Eureka Camp, the proposed reconstruction of the Environment Canada Eureka
Camp down the road, and the construction of the Astrolab
Observatory perched on the adjacent hills more than 15 kilometres
The Cold Regions Specialty Conference promises to be an interesting event with a variety of technical presentations on remote camp facility design and construction, waste management for remote camp facilities, and remote camp facility resupply. Amongst these theme related technical presentations will be a variety of other Cold Regions Engineering related technical presentations.
Thirteen technical presentations are expected at the conference. The range of the technical presentations, relating to design, construction and research on remote camps, and other cold regions related activity, is going to provide a very notable opportunity to discover the science and the application of remote camp technologies.
A panel discussion on Environmental Management for Remote Facilities is also scheduled for the end of the conference. Panel members will include representatives of government, industry and consulting.
The conference is endorsed by the Department of National Defence,
the Royal Military College of Canada, the Government of the
By Historian Ken Coates, Ph.D., on "The Front-Line of Canadian
Prosperity: Remote Camps in Canadian History".
A product and services exhibition with 22 booths will also be taking place during the conference.
R1 - Waste Management
Water Reclamation North of 60 - Wastewater
Treatment and Recycling in NWT and
Effectiveness of Rigid Insulation in Rock Trenches for Thermal Protection of Buried Water Pipes
Alternative Concepts for Water and Sewer Main
Access in the
Evaluation of the Impact of Secondary Sewage
Discharge on the Aquatic Environment of
Healthy House On-Site Water Management System
Performance of Sewage Treatment
Systems in Camps and Communities of the
R2 - Transportation
Marine Transportation: An Essential Service in Cold Regions Development
Port and Road Infrastructure Project, Bathurst
Preliminary Engineering for Marine Resupply
Relocation in the Community of
R3 - Planning, Design and Construction
Site Evaluation for a New
Space Frame Foundation System for Structures in Cold Regions
Canadian Forces Deployed
R4 - Panel Discussion - Environmental Management at Remote Facilities