LANGUAGE ISLANDS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOLKLORE The Transformation of Folklore in the German Language Island Machliniec in East Galicia by Dr. Hans Schmid Preface and Notes by Dr. Gustav Jungbauer Professor of German Folklore German University in Prague Translated by: Birgitt M. Reynolds Milan, Michigan PREFACE A pleasant sign of the post war era is the from year to year increasing interest in those of German stock living abroad. It is only too well founded. No less than a third of Germans live outside the German empire today. A nation that is searching for a way of a new rise must rely on the entirety of its people. Cultural and national unity is more highly important than patriotism. The districts dialectally isolated from the main land play an important part of the German stock living abroad. The nearest laying and politically very important language islands in the east have been eagerly researched during the past few years. The research of Walter Kuhn has become the base for this language island science. The language island science, presently in its developmental stage, has to build in the research and results of its research investigation. This science is of utmost scientific importance. The language islands offer a broad horizon of folkloristic research, which is distinguished by the native and racial characteristics in an area where settlers from various regions gather. Traditions that have long been lost in the native land are still preserved in some language islands. Here, where a variety of dialects are joined into a small region (of 15,000 Germans in Carpathian Russia, no less than 13 different dialects can be found) the researcher has a lucrative, but unfortunately until now, little researched field. The most profitable areas for folkloristic research are the small language islands that developed in the last two centuries. The confined area is easily researched and viewed. Generally, the settlers' folklore of their native land has been determined, which enables the scientist to compare the new forms to the old, and to discover effective validities in the delivery and transformation of tradition. In addition, the science forces the researcher to take an objective and comparable look at the native live of the surrounding foreign population. This builds a bridge in our countries between the German West and the Slavic, or Magyavic or Rumanian East and Southeast. It broadens the horizons, awakens an understanding to foreign culture and enhances the love for your own culture. This science reveals to us where the first contacts and interrelations occur in nations living side by side. It gives us ways and means to consciously promote the life of language islands for the future. The German folklore concerns itself with three groups - (in some aspects different national groups) - the Inland German, the Frontier German and the Language Island German. Compared to the Inland German, who doesn't have to worry about the preservation of his nationality, the Frontier German, if he belongs to a minority in a foreign country, has a strongly developed national consciousness that causes him to cherish everything that secures and strengthens his nationality. It is not without reason that folkloristic research, specifically in German frontier regions, has risen early and has been ideally developed. In contrast to Inland Germany, here the science of folklore has become a main subject in elementary and higher education institutions, and is not treated as an elective subject. The Frontier German, who represents not only the transitionary position but also a wall in between his own nationality and the nationality of the foreigner, has anyhow strong ties to the entire intellectual and cultural German life. The language island population, who is completely surrounded by foreigners, lack these strong ties. However, they impulsively and instinctively preserve their native traditions. The individuality of the language island person has been formed by a variety of circumstances. Their individual heredity is a fundamental factor, which especially in the secluded language island life can't be wiped away. The resulting differences between Palatians and German Bohemians (mostly Frankonians) have been extensively researched by W. Kuhn. He has pointed out the significance of the resulting cultural standings of the language island population. Settlers from the Bohemian Forest and the Egerland, who were used to a more primitive lifestyle in their native land, had, compared to the Palatians, no problems adjusting to the lifestyle in the language island. The emigration to Galicia decreased the Palatians' high and almost urban culture to rural standing. The adjustment into the new world was therefore so much more difficult for the Palatian. We can notice a natural selection process during emigration. By no means are only sub-standard elements leaving their native land and emigrating into a foreign country, as it is commonly said. The emigrants are mainly eager and enterprising people, who believe in a better future. The slow, lazy, weak and frail stay in their homeland or become the victims of hunger, disease and despair that are connected with the early years of a new settlement. The surviving part are the elite, who maintained themselves through physical health, energy and diligence. In his new land the settler is mainly influenced and formed by three elements. The first - the different surrounding land and its condition and climate - forces a change of farm management and their lifestyle, which also doesn't leave the individual untouched. If the settler masters all difficulties and works himself up, to where Machliniec is a good example, this gained wealth also has its effect on folklore. The same holds true when the uprising in wealth is hindered because of bad land conditions or the inability to make a living from the proceeds of the farm, which luckily is rare in the German language island life. The second element is the influence of the surrounding foreigners on the settlers. Here the individual cultures are critical. In midst a culturally rising population, the German preserves his folklore and tradition, but changes his being especially once he becomes successful and rich. He becomes more independent and personable. The feeling and attitude of authority and superiority develops, which was the characteristic for the German settler in the east and is even in part true today. For the surrounding Slaves the cultural development presently comes along quickly, which seems to be disastrous for the German folklore in smaller language islands which have stayed behind in cultural development or have gone through a blemished cultural development. The third determining element is the individual citizenship. Whereby one has to note that the population surrounding the language island individuals not necessarily have to represent their state of affairs. You can best follow the change of conditions in the German language islands in Slovakia and Carpathian Russia. The population living around the Germans are Ukranians and Slovaks. In former times the Magyaren were the governing body, today it is the Tchechoslovakians. In the beginning the influence of the governing body on the minorities seems to be only on the surface (i.e., office titles, village signs, shop signs), but eventually reaches deeper. Especially the male population is effected by the converting influence, who during military service and in day to day life and dealings with government offices come into close contact with the governing body. Through this new belonging of a citizenship or government it can happen that a metropolitan city that for centuries had been the center for economic and cultural life is brought out of use. For Machliniec, just as for all of Old Austria, it was Vienna, a town for which no substitute has been found. So this work deals more with present active elements of past times. It can not be doubted that the folkloristic existence of Machliniec will be changed in coming decades. This book is very valuable because it is a first contribution to the research in language island folklore. Besides historical information, it gives a complete picture of a small and young language island in the east. It vividly shows how the mentioned element forces were effective and what effects they might have in the future. However, we cannot generalize this example for all language islands in Galicia. Machliniec has a special position. As noticed by the author, here you can find less of a rural and more of a middle-class culture. Referring to this, W. Kuhn writes of the Machliniecs: "Because of their greater land property and the law of entail they had to agree to during the initial settlement, some lifestyles which are connected with greater wealth are different from the other German Bohemians and show similarities with the lifestyles of the Palatians. So the Machliniecs resemble the Palatians quality of farm management, the magnitude of emigration to America and come close to their knowledge of languages and education. The Palatians also value the Machliniecs differently from the other German Bohemians. In all other aspects however, where emphasis is not placed on wealth but on native character, the Machliniecs are true German Bohemians: a rural way of thinking; unsusceptibility of influences by urban civilization; simple lifestyle; high birth rates; steadiness in spreading through the land, etc. So they exhibit from both races only the best characteristics, and one hasn't without reason recognized the Machliniecs as the most efficient of all German settlers in Galicia." However, to gain a complete picture of the language islands in Galicia, folkloristic study of other villages is also necessary. The ones that have been considered were mentioned in W. Kuhn's book in the section reflecting the birth rates. He chose the following four villages: Hohenbach as a typical example of a civilized protestant village; Koenigsau as a palation-catholic colony; Machliniec as the most advanced German Bohemian settlement; and Felizienthal as an example of a German-Bohemian colony which to this day is in a complete untouched natural condition. Folkloristically more lucrative is naturally the latter settlement. But also the Machliniec folklore shows us the views and laws that govern in the language islands. Folklore that is no longer feasible in the new world, like the midsummer festival, disappear or live on, like the death board, only in memory or legends. Others are forbidden either by the church or government. Other traditions changed due to the influence of the Polish church. A certain numbness is obvious in their customs. Certain customs are still practiced but nobody is ware of their meaning anymore. In general we notice a curtailment and pauperization in folklore, which is very strong in the much advanced settlement of Machliniec. The economic wealth is important to the folkloristic development. The research shows: the erection of an individual attic which contributes to the change in roof style and house style; the large drawing room changes into a small state room; the higher living culture deemed to move the dung hill from the middle of the courtyard to a more remote location; and as with time all customs that more or less have something to do with begging disappear; etc. This research not only delivers examples on how properties held in fee of linguistic and materialistic nature are taken over by the surrounding population and consequently mixed forms, characteristic for the language islands, develop. It also shows how the German folklore delivers to the surrounding population and how it is the mediator and teacher in cultural and economic relations. So Machliniec confirms, which is valid for all German language islands, the fact that here the German has completely and honestly fulfilled his mission to deliver culture, which the host country often rewards with scornful unthankfulness. Prague Dr. Gustav Jungbauer GROWTH AND INDIVIDUALITY OF THE LANGUAGE ISLAND LIFE About 20 kilometers eastwards from the town of Stryj in Little Poland, the former Galicia, lies a small German language island. The settlers are Bohemians. The settlement consists of six villages of which Machliniec is the largest and most important. Machliniec also serves as the parish and the center of the settlement. The surrounding areas are inhabited by Ukranians (also called Ruthenen or Russniaken) who are the original settlers and by Poles (Masurians) who were just as the Germans settled here. Using Machliniec as an example, we will, through our research, present the existence and moral development of a young language island in the east. HISTORY Around the year 1820, the Lord of the Manor of Daszawa, Felix Earl of Dobrzanski, distributed the following public notice in Bohemia: "He will reasonably sell a quantity of his best land to people who want to settle on his manor." According to verbal delivery, Christof Angermann, who served as cavalryman at a stud-farm near Stryj and where he also became acquainted with Felix of Dobrzanski, delivered this public notice throughout Bohemia. "With magisterial disbandment and their dwindling food supply, many vassals felt obliged to accept the challenge and to set out here." In 1823 the first families, who were sent to explore, moved. One or more families joined in the purchase of a horse and wagon. Children and luggage were placed on the wagon and the adults walked next to it. That's how the journey began. The crossing over the Galizian border stayed with all settlers as an especially noteworthy memory. "Where Poland began, there was a gate depicting a louse", they tell, or: "On the Bialka bridge there stood a stone which had on one side a carved flee and on the other side a carved louse." This might have been an interpretation of the country's crest, and also very well reflects the feelings with which the settlers moved towards the east. The journey lasted over three weeks. When the settlers arrived in Daszawa, the lord of the manor notified them that they would get 19 Joch (acre) arable land and 2 Joch (acre) of pasture for 60 fl.C.M. and four tax-free years. After expiration of the four years they were to pay 25 fl.C.M. annual property tax. The settlers signed the contract and sent messengers back to their homeland to notify the others of the settlement and to lead them there. Whether there was lack of time or not, all this happened before further examining the leased land which lay further east. Once the land was issued to them, they realized to their great dismay, that it wasn't arable land or pasture, but a large stretch of jungle off of which the lord of the manor had already used the largest trees for his own building projects. The settlers sent a delegation to the lord of the manor stating that it would take, even with the most industrious and hard working workers, at least 10-12 years to clear such a stretch of forest. Arable land had been promised to them and that it would be impossible, without ruining their families completely, to get by on the negotiated four tax-free years and they would also not be able to pay the 25 fl. annual property tax. The lord von Dobrzanski gave in only in as much as to raise the tax-free years from four to six years and to lower the annual property tax to 20 fl. This still seemed unacceptable to the settlers and rumors went about to return to their homeland. But most of them had already paid the 60 fl. settlement fee, and it was too hard for them to return their families back to their homeland, especially since they wouldn't own anything there anymore once they got there. Furthermore, they would have needed permission for their return from the lord of the manor; a permission which they did not receive. So, they decided to stay. They deposited their few belongings under the oak trees. Only a little shed stood in the place of today's Machliniec. Makeshift shelters were erected. Then the clearing work began. The other settlers followed and slowly the needed number for settlement (50 families) was reached. The upcoming village received its name from the nearby creek "Machliniec". These were hard times. Even women had to dig along with the men. An old woman recalls: "My mother-dear arrived here as a single woman at the age of 20. She was an orphan. She worked from morning to night, as long as it was light, often until blood came out of her mouth - so she dug." But they didn't let themselves get down. "No matter how hard they worked during the week, on sundays they bought a litre of schnaps and danced until the soles of their shoes fell apart." In the beginning the living conditions were rather poor. A woman recalls her ancestors: "They arrived here on Easter; seven families and all. They immediately began clearing and planting and lived under the trees. Only four weeks before "Kirwa" in October, as it began to get cold, they built a house big enough for the seven families. It wasn't even dry before they moved into it." There was a great need of water. Apparently the settlers didn't take the time to dig more wells in the beginning, so there was only one well in Machliniec from which also the people from Kornelowka got their water. Regardless, they didn't lack happy spirits. Many amusing tales from that time are told. As the dedication of the church approached, the women insisted on baking (Koichla) donuts and to buy something special. So they went to the town of Zurawno and inquired at each house if they had "Heang" (honey). But the Jews didn't understand that expression; until finally a woman saw bees-wax at one of the merchants and told him she wanted what comes out of there. "Aha, Honig (Honey)," said the Jew. "The teacher, Josef Blaha, was a very skilled man. He had his school in Germany and taught the children very well and was able to play all instruments. He came along with the settlers from the Egerland. One day he wanted to buy new strings for his violin so he could play up for the dance. So he requested from the merchant "Geigensoitn" (violinstrings), but nobody understood him. So he tried himself at Jiddish and said: 'Give me the strands on a fiddle.' and that was understood." Such tales, which are still told today, give testimony that the settlers, despite all their hard work, didn't loose their good sense of humor. The energetic battle for their rights that they fought against the dominion also shows that they didn't lack energy and foresight. The immigration continued until about 1830. At the same time as the village Kornelowka was founded, German settlers were settled in Nowesiolo (there first in a district called Michalowka) and in Izydorowka, both Ukranian villages. But still at that time the lord of the manor refused to give the settlers the chance to measure their land exactly. He even took an originally promised stretch of forest and replaced it with a swamp. He insisted on payment of the property taxes, even though the clearing work was still in progress. In a decision, based on a complaint by the Machliniec settlers, of March 3, 1833, the Stryjer district court denied the dominion of Doszawa the right to forcefully collect the property taxes. The dominion gave recourse against this decision and the government ruled by decree on June 18th, that: "Since the settlers already have actual possession of the land, they are also obliged to fulfill their obligations toward the dominion;" and that the district may compulsorily collect the taxes, if above mentioned ruling should fail. The district informed the Machliniec settlers of the decision. At the same time it informed them that according to the highest patent of July 1, 1789, every settlement should have an individual signed and stamped contract between each settler and the dominion. This contract should also provide that it is an obligation of the dominion to reduce interest fees in case of elemental damages or losses. Also, this contract must be obeyed by all heirs of Constantin Dobrzanskischen, who commonly own the land The Machliniec settlers knew to v-rue this information. They served a formal petition to the government in which they described in great detail the circumstances under which the settlement began. Furthermore, they pointed out that the contract was only written on an unstamped paper and, without consulting of the other heirs and co-owners, beared only Felix von Dobrzanski's signature. Therefore, making this contract invalid. "It is definitely not our intention that we, the humble settlers in the dominion of Daszawa, want to avoid our obligations towards the dominion. No! We are peaceful Germans and want to fulfill our duties, as long as we can even just barely provide for our families and it doesn't exceed our strength." Then they demanded enforced rules and new contracts to be signed. These new contracts should give them ten tax-free years and a lower tax rate. Furthermore, they asked that the dominion be ordered to measure out their land, because they still did not know whether each settler really owned their full 19 Joch of arable land and 2 Joch of pasture. Non-fulfillment of their demands would result in their leaving. This petition got a certain victory. A part of the contract, which was signed on November 1, 1834, between all Dobrzanskischen heirs and the 50 settlers of Machliniec, is quoted in a document of 1866. Therein it contains the dominion's obligation to let each settler have 19 Joch of arable land, to give the community the grounds for a church and school free of charge, a building site for a forge at a low interest rate, to supply the therefore needed bricks and shingles at a reduced cost, and to reduce taxes by certain standards in case of a bad harvest, field damage or serious fire. The number of tax-free years didn't seem to be raised. Even later only 6 tax-free years are mentioned. The 2 Joch promised pasture, which they demanded in their petition, were apparently counted into the 19 Joch arable land. This seems to be obvious out of field maps and explained in the quoted contract. The property tax was calculated at 1 fl. per joch - that made it 19 fl. annually. Moreover, each settler had to give the Dominion free of charge six days per month of transport services and six days of hands-on labor. Furthermore, they had to give the dominion eight days of cash paid labor per month. This time was very hard for the settlers. In 1862, former priest Drozdowski writes in his "Liber memorabilium of the Machliniec Parish": 'The members of this parish have until 1837 cleared the forests and planted the fields, but have fought with misery, hunger and the greatest poverty imaginable.' And in the handwritten "History of the Machliniec Settlement" which was written around 1910 by a Machliniec columnist for the just founded Lemberger "Ostdeutsche Volksblatt" (Eastgerman Public Paper) it reads: "Out of hunger and despair many a one went to the next village to beg for a piece of bread." Germans were far better treated in the Robot than the Ruthenen. They were given decent work and were highly regarded because of their good workmanship. But they had to suffer highly under the strict regiment. The overseers saw themselves as absolute masters and didn't spare with prison sentences and beatings. As in 1837 the forest clearing was completed, the settlers felt the construction of a church as one of utmost importance. Until then they had been incorporated in the parish of a Polish church in Kochawina, which lay about 10 kilometers away. The path to church was nearly unpassable. They therefore, as reflected in the "History of a Settlement", decorated a giant oak tree between Machliniec and Izydorowka with pictures. There they met each sunday and on holidays to light sacred candles and to pray the rosary. Now, that times were better, they wanted to build a church. In January 1837, they submitted a request to the Stryjer district in which they asked for assistance in petitioning the consistory for the foundation of a church and priest's living quarters. (Machliniec Parish Archives). - They pointed out the following reasons: Machliniec alone had 396 and the whole settlement 692 Germans. Their present parish in Kochawina lies 10 kilometers away. Nearly one mile of the way leads through thicket and woods and during a rain the ground becomes swampy and it makes it impossible to reach their destination. In the winter time it is impossible to even attempt the walk. "What will become of us and our children, who are being deprived of religious teachings; the religion that builds the foundation to our future lives." Machliniec already has a church building site available. Also, Machliniec is most centrally located and all surrounding communities will have equal distances to travel. In the meantime the four parishes would gather their meek resources and energies and erect a small chapel in Machliniec. - This petition is signed by Georg Menzel, Machliniec's mayor; two jurymen and delegates from the surrounding communities. In response to this petition the district requested further details on how the settlers could help support clergyman expenses. They replied that each house would supply a quarter of corn and would also supply him with all necessary firewood. Thereupon, in 1838, a hearing in Hornung was called to which community delegates and lords of the manor were invited to testify how they could contribute to the building and support of a church and a clergyman. Christof Muehlbauer and Ferdinand Koestler were sent as Machliniec's delegates. The procuration was by Georg Menzl as mayor, the jurymen Michl Weiss and Johann Fleissner and from all remaining settlers. Fifteen of the settlers signatures are in form of a cross and another printed his name, which concludes that about 30 percent of the men did not know how to write. The Polish lords of the manor displayed very scanty and reserved behavior during the hearing. Dobrzanski's patron, on whose land Machliniec got settled, remarked that he would supply the necessary clay to build the church. However, he was not willing to take any responsibility regarding the building site or to be responsible for the clergyman's support. (The ground there consisted mostly of clay and could be obtained by just removing the first layer of earth.) The Lord von Izydorowka, v. Pietruski, offered to supply the needed bricks to erect the foundation walls, but refused to assume their transport to the building site. The Lord of Nowesiolo refused any kind of support. So, the community had to nearly support the building solely from their own resources. But they didn't give up and insisted on official authorization. In a petition to Prince-Arch-Bishop of Lemberg of June 18, 1838, it reads: "Through induction by our Lords of the manor, German-Bohemian inhabitants made their home in Machliniec, Carnalufka and Isedorutka, Kornelowka and Izedorowkr. We had left our homeland to find our bread and support. Now that we are in a foreign land, where the language is unknown to us, we not only have had the bad fortune of having lost our property and homeland. Now, to loose our religion, our biggest fortune, our sacred hope - what a sad circumstance for us and our children. Because we cannot supply them with any spiritual help, how can we expect and hope for anything good from them. We can find churches, religion teachers and eager priests in Galicia, but what good will it do when we can't understand the language and therefore will not be able to hear the words of the Lord." Another urgent petition to the district of Stryj is dated November 17, 1839. Finally, by 1842, all necessary authorizations were given and the little church, erected out of soft wood, could be dedicated. The first priest to Machliniec was Eugen Ritter von Siemenuszowa Pietruski. He noticed the settlers' hardship right away and because he himself was a nobleman and related to the Lord of Izydorowka, was able to do many a thing to better the conditions. In his first year a cemetery was marked off and dedicated as the settlers' place of burial. Pietruski dedicated himself to his new parish. He organized the necessary ornaments and utensils used in holding mass and deposited 100 fl for the foundation of a school house in Machliniec. Even though the time of clearing the forest had past, the settlers situation hadn't improved much. The Robot hindert their own work and it was a burden for them to pay the annual property tax. Moreover, the lord of the manor insisted on repayment of monetary aid they had received during a time when the continuation of the colony seemed in jeopardy. The settlers complained to the district of Stryj several times about the oppression they received from the lords of the manor. That they kept their wages back, but continuously complain about back taxes and demand enforced rules. Most of these complaints were made in the years 1846 and 1847. The settlers felt very oppressed and followed with eager interest the developments in Austria in 1848. Kept documents show that even in those years very alert men were among the top of the settlement. As by highest decree of April 17, 1848, part of the Robot, as far as it was connected with the dependency, was lifted, the settlement of Machliniec presented the State Governor Count Stadion a petition in which by explanation of their circumstances they requested to lower the contractual settled robot and interest rates. This petition was, per return letter of June 28, 1848, denied. The reason given was that the relation between the settlers of Machliniec and their lords of the manor was based on private contracts and the decree had no provisions to cover their request. However, on December 2, 1848, by a manifest of the emperor, all submission was abolished. So, already on December 19, two settlement delegates traveled with their petition to Lemberg. It read: "After the announcement of the highest decree of September 7, 1848, the German/Bohemian settlers of Machliniec, Kornelowka and Michalowka have submitted numerous petitions to request to be freed from drudging and payment of excessive taxes. Now, disregarding the speech of September 27, 1848, by the Prime Minister and the emperors manifest of December 2, 1848, which abolishes submission and frees the land regardless of ownership, we, the humble settlers are not only asked to pay taxes to our former lord of the manor, but also to the district. These payments seem especially unfounded to us, the humble dependents, since all dependents of Kameral, who beared same conditions, are now totally relieved from making monetary payments. Since our settlement has not received a decision on our numerous petitions presented to the K.K. District office, the high state office and the prime ministry's office, we herewith respectfully request the prime ministry's office to submit to our humble delegates an immediate decision. Machliniec Kornelowka Nowesiolo December 19, 1848 Finally, the year 1848 brought the long for desired release from the Robot. It is to their honor that they didn't receive this release in a passive way, but fought every step, even though they lived in the Ruthenen area, an area still untouched by high intellectualism. The subsequent years were years of great development for the settlement. Farmers became economically sound. Already in 1852 a school was built and in 1859 the four settlements collectively built a rectory in Machliniec. The arrival of Wladislaus Drozdowski, the fourth priest and successor to Pietruski, gave them a very capable minister. (Pietruski had been transferred to Kochawina in 1847 and besides their names there is no further information on the following two successors.) Even though he was Polish, he managed to build a good relationship with his parish and found their support. He planned to build a larger church made out of stone, because the present one, which was built in 1839, was getting to small and its wood construction was brittle. In a letter from the consistory Lemberg to the deanery of Stryj it says about Drozdowski: "...that he with the trust of God and his devouted congregation will begin and oversee the construction." The construction began in 1860. While Drozdowski visited all surrounding Polish noblemen to solicit large donations, the settlers participated in the construction and also helped with donations. Because the old cemetery was getting too small, a new one was dedicated in 1861 with great ceremony. The new church was finished in 1862, and it was dedicated on August 20, in the presence of many people from various surrounding villages. Johann von Nepomuk, patron of Bohemia, was selected as the church's saint patron. Believers from Kochawina, Zurawno, Stryj, Sokolow, Felizienthal, Klimiec and Koenigsau also came to the dedication. The first three communities are Polish (and therefore in contrast to the Ruthenen also Roman-Catholic) and the last three are German settlements which lay quite a distance away. So it seems that back then a certain )e13 - connection did exist between the scattered German settlements. The dedication ceremony was held both in German and Polish. Drozdowski probably began in the same year the already mentioned "Liber Memorabilium" of the Machliniec parish in the German language. He reports therein of the time that had passed since its inception. As a point of view, which will help recognize the spiritual situation of the settlement in 1862, an excerpt is listed below: "What has been introduced or abolished in the course of Vladislaus Drozdowski's time: Introduced the ringing of bells on sundays and holidays. The remembrance of the bitter suffering and death of Jesus Christ every Friday afternoon at three o'clock. The transformation during each mass the prayerbook title "Jahreskranz" (Year's Wreath) The Songs: Help Maria Spring of Mercy Mother of Mercy - Two Christmas songs - Two Easter songs One Johann song The seating order in the church: The children first, then young men to the right; maidens to the left; men to the right; women to the left. The Brotherhood: The oldest brother in the sacristy; two by the children to supervise; the rest in the middle of the church to keep order and to begin the songs. - The procession around the church every sunday. - The reading of the holy life story every sunday. The Brotherhood - 18 members An annual high mass on Saint Joseph's memorial day, March 19; a sermon on brotherhood and accounting of the church fund. Parish Library: Books bought by Vhadislaus Drzdowski in the community collection. Index: The House Encyclopedia - 8 Volumes The Prayerbook Jahreskranz General Handbook on Gardening Handbook on Bookkeeping The Veterinarian or the Handbook on Diagnosis and Cure of Common Horse Diseases Agriculture by Leopold Trautmann - 2 Volumes Diagnostics for General Practitioners Practical Manual for Business Management Catechism for the Religion Teacher for the Deaf-Mute Abolished: The playing of music in taverns on sundays and holidays, with the exception of Shrovetide and consecration with the mayor's permission. These excerpts are glimpses that have a presentiment of the healthy and quiet community life during that time period. Since the common disputes and complaints ceased, the relationship between settlers and lord of the manor began getting better. At the 1866 hearing in Machliniec between the lords of the manor and the settlers, in which all obligations of the lords of the manor towards the settlement should have been dropped, all present declared in front of judge Johann Stich that the lords of the manor had fulfilled all obligations towards the settlement and that the settlement would not have any further claims of the lords of the manor. The settlement developed economically slowly but constantly. The village life was exemplary because of the diligence and good manors by its inhabitants. In 1868 lord of the manor Seelieb of Oblaznica sold about 100 Joch land to settlers in Kornelowka. They in turn parcelled the land to people from Machliniec and other German settlers who did not own any land. That is how the village Wola Oblaznicka was founded, which consisted of numerous 2 Joch size farms. To this day, parcel owners must earn their main income away from the farm. Mostly they work as carpenters. The German called the village "Dresseldorf". Originally an abusive name because right after the settlement someone grabbed someone elses throat in the course of a big fight. This seem to have been the time period when the settlers of Machliniec were very much like the high spirited Egerlaender. "Instructions for the Mayor" from the year 1876 are preserved for us where it states: 3. To pay attention that all children and also adults attend bible classes regularly; and concerning school, to ensure that parents are sending their children. 4. Music, either in the morning or afternoon, before or during church services is strictly forbidden, and also should not be allowed after 9 p.m. 5. Meetings at night between boys and girls should not happen and special attention should be paid to actions that could result to be scandalous or immoral. 12. Participants in a brawl, where injuries have occurred, shall be arrested and brought to justice immediately. In 1883 lord of the manor v. Dobrzanski sold the remaining 266 Joch of the manor Machliniec and 96 Joch of the neighboring manor Daszawa to landowners in Machliniec for 36,000 Gulden. They shared the 396 Joch amongst each other so everyone received 12 Joch. Some of them used the land to build farms for their second born sons so that Machliniec's total number of farms grew from 50 to 71. This growth continued steadily in this language island. In time the settlers of Izydorowka bought an additional 100 Joch farmland from Ruthenen farmers, and in 1899 Machliniec settlers bought from the Izydorowka manor additional 70 Joch land for 8,670 Gulden and founded the little village of Controvers. The situation in the parish did not develop in such a favourable way. The "liber memorabilium", which originally was written in German, now continued to be written in Polish. This is an indication that Drozdowski's successors did not establish a good relationship with the parish. Still in 1897 a priest established a community library of 110 volumes of "moral and religious content", but soon afterwards we can take out of the memorial book that a priest by the name of Wojciechowski had to leave the parish in the year 1900 because of "Intrigues by the parish children of Machliniec". These intrigues consisted of a strong resentment and opposition by the settlers against the Polish influence during church services. The religious life suffered quite a bit under these circumstances. A minister who arrived on a temporary basis in 1905, and who also dedicated himself to the parish, wrote in the memorial book that the Machliniec's children had very little religious knowledge. It required three months of straining lessons before he could administer sacrament to his 50 entrusted children. "Also, among the people the incomprehension of certain religious ideas is great, but they are good people from the bottom of their hearts. They tend to be charitable and acknowledge the work of the minister to better their moral being. Their present indifferent and dull attitude is slowly changing to affection and love." (Memorial book). Still, in the same year priest Klein came to Machliniec. He was a descendent of a half-German family, and in the beginning he continued to work in the same fashion as his predecessor. He even participated in the founding of the "Alliance of Christian Germans in Galicia," wherein the Machliniec district mayor Christof Weiss actively participated. Even though, because of bad harvests and accidents, the past few years hadn't been economically good, the economic situation became significantly better after the year 1900. The farmers had changed over to cattle raising and they followed the cattle market price in the papers of Vienna, Bruenn, Maehr and Ostrau. If the jew of Stryj didn't pay the requested price, they often organized a cattle transport and transported two or three train wagons of cattle directly to Vienna. They also leased additional farm land from the lord of the manor, sometimes up to 30 Joch, and worked it. This naturally required significantly higher labor performance, but also offered the opportunity to step up the ladder. In 1906, the manor of Nowesiolo sold 300 Joch at a rate of 250 Gulde per Joch to German landowners. In 1905 Machliniecs had already bought glebe land for 1000 Kronen and raised an additional 1000 Kronen for the church restoration. In 1907 the German villages built a new rectory in Machliniec. Priest Klein, who in the beginning was very German conscious, slowly changed his attitude. Maybe he got in trouble with his superiors and now he tried to get back into their graces, but in short he now worked towards a Polish conscious making. Without the knowledge of the German parishes he tried to incorporate a Polish parish. He announced this incorporation during services on sunday and also informed them that from now on at least one service per month would be held in Polish. Well, he had made this decision without Machliniec's inhabitants. They left the church immediately after his announcement and district mayor Weiss called a meeting to discuss what had to be done. It was decided in this meeting that mayor Weiss, with the permission of the parish and accompanied by some parish members, should travel to the Archbishop in Lemberg to submit an official complaint. They realized their journey and when the archbishop of Lemberg more or less dismissed their complaint, mayor Weiss declared in a firm tone that if nothing would change in the present situation, the whole parish of Machliniec shall be prepared to become Protestant. They would have never done this because the Machliniecs were devout Catholics, but the threat worked. The delegation succeeded in their demand and priest Klein was forced to leave the parish because he had made himself impossible. The archbishop, who soon after made some visits to Machliniec, was welcomed in such a friendly and enthusiastic way, that he himself noted that in all Galicia he never has found such a welcome and that he could not blame the parish for their strong measures taken. " The German settlers again bought an additional 100 Joch in 1910 from the manor Seelieb. To understand the spiritual life in Machliniec during 1910 and 1914, one has to consider the outside influences from other Germans. Namely the "Alliance of Christian Germans in Galicia" has to be mentioned here. Veterinarian Joseph Schmidt, from the Egerland, who was stationed in Przemsyl and was founder and organizer of the alliance, made many visits to Machliniec, where he felt comfortable. Drawn by the Alliance, many Germans from Galician towns, namely Lemberg, visited the settlement. Egerland officers, who were stationed in Stryj visited often and attended the annual "Kirwa" (consecration) and spent most of their free time in the so native feeling town. Because of these changing affects of visiting rural and urban people a special culture evolved which naturally did not conform to the normal settlement's developments, and ceased when these mutual relations were disrupted during the war. Veterinarian Schmidt lists in his 1913 article following organizations in Machliniec: a local chapter of the Alliance of Christian Germans a farm bureau a music/marching band a German choir a volunteer fire brigade a dairy farmers association This reflects a quiet but well organized cooperative system. A system that does not conform to the rustic German settlement's development, but definitely reflects the urban influences. It is also reflected in the theatre performances that were held during this time period in Machliniec: Kotzbue - The Miserable; Chaos Wilhelmi - One Must Marry Benedix - The Affectionate Relatives; Servants Perrou - Me and My Mother-In-Law This culture was quickly disrupted by war. The Russians had invaded Galicia fast and marched through Machliniec. The mayor received orders one day to select 27 men to go out into the battlefield to dig trenches for the Russians. The men were chosen and took off. Everyone assumed them to be lost in battle, but they eventually returned safely. When the Russians retreated, Germans and Austrians advanced and their troops marched through Machliniec. Some cattle was robbed, but otherwise no damage was done. It was beneficial to the settlement that the surrounding area was not suited for troop settlement and therefore troops only marched through Machliniec. Most battles took place at Dniestr by Zarawno. Austrian and German soldiers often took quarters in Machliniec and were always surprised to meet Germans there. The surprise was especially great when it so happened that Egerlander, who spoke the same dialect, took quarters there. Peace did not come, even when the armistice was signed with Russia. Poles and Ukranians fought 1919 the battle over East Galicia and even a Bolshevik patrol group came once through the village. Thanks to their great energy and organization, the Poles were able to win the battle against the Ukranians and East Galicia was theirs. A host of Polish soldiers fell into Machliniec and robbed more than the Russians had during the war. Now, after the war the settlements situation became totally different. With Austria they still had been with a German state - even though the Poles had since 1870 completely taken over the administration of Galicia - they now belonged to the German minority in Poland. Relations and connections with Vienna were suspended. Because Poland was primarily an agricultural country and had an abundance of cattle, trade and cattle raising had to be discontinued. The scattered German settlements in Galicia were not viewed as dangerous by the Poles and therefore not attacked. In that aspect, the Germans were doing far better compared to the Ukranians, but were not treated in a friendly manner. The "Alliance of Christian Germans" was broken up and had to be replaced with confessional groups such as the "Alliance of German Catholics in East Galicia". This alliance found an eager leader in head teacher Reinpold from Mariahilf by Kolomea. This organization started, just as the former, a chapter in Machliniec. It also sponsored German private schools in Dresseldorf and Izydorowka-Controvers, which were built by the former alliance upon suggestion of mayor Weiss. During pentecost in 1923 Machliniec celebrated its centennial anniversary, in which many people from surrounding German communities and organizations from Lemberg participated. The settlers now had become poorer. They had lost a lot of their wealth in war bonds and what they hadn't lost yet was now completely worthless due to the devaluation of the Polish currency. Through these circumstances one can understand their great mistrust in money and their hunger for land. As soon as they saved a little bit, they tried to invest it in land and also overpaid for it. So each individual land owner buys whatever land possible. In 1928 the community of Machliniec bought additional 109 Joch forest and pasture land from the Sjechov manor for 110 dollar per Joch. 2. THE PRESENT SITUATION GEOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION The village Machliniec lies a little bit south of the imperial highway Stryj-Zurawno. Presently it counts 85 house numbers. The former canalization station has been barely changed. The fine houses stand in same intervals to the right and left from the well cared for hedge rounded main street. The layout direction goes west-north-west to east-south-east. The railway Stryj-Chorodow runs parallel to the imperial highway further north and the closest train station can be found in Hnizdyczow-Kochawina, about 10 kilometers from Machliniec away. The area around the settlement is not necessarily flat, but has rolling hills and towards the south one can see the stretch of the Carpathian ridge. The forest within the municipality is completely cleared, however on the north side one can find some wooded areas and a forest lies directly on the southern border of the municipality. Because the wood supply in this area has become scarce, the forest and the clearing of it is now regulated and controlled by law. The community has presently 514 inhabitants, all of whom are Germans with the exception of one Ukranian family, the Polish priest and the Polish teacher. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION Nearly without exceptions the settlers are "Farmers" or "Landlords". This is their "title" because they title the Ruthenen as "Peasants". The size of the average farm is between 17 and 25 Joch, but there are some larger ones of 40, 50 and 60 Joch. There are about 10 farms that exceed the size of 30 Joch. Some craftsmen, who settled outside of the original settlement, also own small pieces of farmland of about 2-6 Joch, which they farm on the side.

20 - Before the war, the farmers' economic situation was very good. On the average, a landowner would fatten two oxes annually. He would receive about 500 Kronen (crowns) for one, which would pay the salaries of three servants. With the profits of the other ox he could purchase items needed throughout the year and the income from the grain would remain as net profit. But the good times are over. The market for cattle is gone. The agricultural productivity was also affected by the discontinuance of cattle raising, because the natural fertilizer was gone. Even though, farming presently does not offer a good money making opportunity, it still gives a secure income. One is in a secure position because all necessities can be obtained from the land and little is needed from outside. The political and economic changes affected farming very little. Property is still the only financial security because money is so easily devaluated. Flax, buckwheat, potatoes and turnips are also planted in Machliniec along with the four basic grain types. The following rotation of planting is done: The uncultivated field is fertilized and wheat is planted. In the next year the field is tilled and corn is planted; in the third year oats or root crops are planted. Then clover is seeded which will be cut for the next two years. After this time the field stays uncultivated and serves as pasture. Or the uncultivated field is not fertilized in the beginning and corn is planted. In the next year one plants potatoes or oats. Only afterwards the field is fertilized and wheat along with clover are planted. After the clover, the field remains fallow land just as in the first series of plant rotation. One uses machines for the fruit utilization. Each farm has its own winch which powers the threshing machine, a cleaning mill, a shaw mower, and a root crop mower. Also milk centrifuges exist at every farm. The settlers were always open to new innovations in the field of farm administration. Even chemical fertilizer is used and brought in by the wagon loads. All attempts are being made to make the land as fertile as possible. Every farmer, with an average farm size of 20 Joch, owns as livestock 2 horses, 4-5 cows, 2 yearling calves, 3 young calves, and also some pigs, and ducks and chicken as poultry. Geese are hardly kept and goats and sheep do not exist in the village. A farmer with over 30 Joch of land keeps about 4 horses and 7 cows. The cattle raised in Machliniec is of Simmentaler race. The cattle of the German settlers is highly valued in the district because of its high quality. Farmers from Machliniec and Kornelowka always receive first prize in cattle shows. Therefore, the Germans receive support from the district's agricultural association to raise a valuable local breed of cattle. This agricultural association also has Polish members and is under Polish administration. Machliniec received a subsidy of 700 Zloty to raise the agricultural productivity and also gave them the use of an imported breeding bull. Butter, eggs and cream are transported to Stryj and traded there. East Galicia's trade is nearly totally in the hands of the Jews. Machliniec is one of the few villages able to stay free of Jews. There are two local German merchants in the village who once a week buy up all the eggs, butter, cream and poultry and then transport the goods on market day in full wagons to Stryj. There, however, because individual sales would take up too much time, a Jewish merchant buys up the entire wagon load. The German merchants return from Stryj with goods that are normally requested during the week; such as: petroleum ("Naft"), linen, salt and the various little items used around the house and farm. A direct trade develops because merchants receive deliveries of mostly agricultural nature. when a farmer has a pig for sale, he takes it to the market, sells it and brings back what is needed, such as block salt, hoop iron and leather. The market in Zurawno is sometimes visited, but most trading is done in the further laying market of Stryj. The Jews constantly try to get involved in the local economy of Machliniec. They come from Nowesiolo, where Germans, Ukranians and Poles live in alloy and they have found easier acceptance. They come as pedlars into the village and try their luck in cattle sales and in procuring farm equipment. But Machliniecs don't want too much involvement with the Jews. One must deal with them on the outside, but they are not wanted in their village. THE TRADE There are some tradesmen in Machliniec who also have some farmland on the side. In former times there were "true tradesmen", called "live-ins", who rented a room in a farmhouse and worked as woodsmen or their normal trade but did not personally own any land. The work in the woods has ceased and each tradeworker has his own house and at least on field of land. Usually the whole family is familiar with the particular trade and helps out in addition to their regular farm work. In addition each master tradesman has a number of apprentices. Every young man, who does not own any land, learns a trade before he emigrates from the village. Anymore, the village - 22 - itself hardly offers a chance of settlement for a tradesman. Machliniec used to have one blacksmith who served all five surrounding communities. Today every community has its own blacksmith and Machliniec has even two. Following trades can be found in Machliniec: 5 tailors, 3 carpenters, 2 shoemakers, 1 wagon maker and 1 master of the pump room (well). The Germans also work for the surrounding Ukranian villages. Many were able to settle there, namely blacksmiths and recently even tailors because Ukranians started to give up their costumes and prefer to dress like Germans. However, because farmland is scarce and no matter how modest their lifestyles are, many Ukranians find it hard to survive and therefore are beginning to learn trades. STUDENTS In recent times more and more young Machliniecs turn to academic study. Before the war two went to the University in Bielitz, where one became a lawyer and the other a doctor and both stayed inland. After the war three attended the German teacher college in Bielitz. Presently one of them serves as teacher in a community school in the little Egerland community of Poechersdorf by Bolechow. In 1927, a girl and a boy attended the teacher's college in Bielitz, three boys went to the Bielitz high school and one attended a Polish agricultural middle school. Study is met with great difficulty. Lemberg only has a protestant-confessional middle school and the next possible place of study is Bielitz about 400 kilometers away. Circumspection is shown in that settlers, regardless of the distance, sent their children to school in Bielitz. POPULATION MOVEMENT The growth of the Machliniec settlement is not very significant. Because of the pre-war law of entail and the non existence of settlers without land in the beginning of the settlement, the growth of population was limited to the amount of land disposed. Purchases of new land enabled the population growth but not in a significant way. Machliniec had a population of 398 in 1837; 441 in 1880; and counts 514 inhabitants in 1928. The increase of population was large in the beginning. An average family had eight children. The surplus population in part turned to surrounding newly settled German communities. The six villages of the Machliniec isolated dialect area count today about 1650 Germans compared to 736 in the year 1837. Others emigrated. As a group they could find settlement in either the surrounding Slavic communities (as the village Mihalok in East Slovakia, founded by Egerlands from the Machliniec and Felizienthaler - 23 - isolated dialect district) or they settled individually in Ukranian villages to work their trade. Mostly then, not so much the parents, but the children became more and more Slavic. But to the most part they emigrated to America. It is not easily determined how large the emigration stream to Argentina and Canada has been. Teacher Niemczyk, who taught in several villages in the Machliniec district, guesses the number of emigrants to America over the past 30 years at about 1,000. Mostly young men and women emigrated. About a fifth of the emigrants returned once they had made some money, in order to purchase property in their homeland. Niemczyk's numbers are confirmed by the work of Walter Kuhn, who compared birth and death records in the church register and also consulted the results of a census. In America Machliniecs are able to prosper. They are considered to be very efficient people. In Canada they mostly work on farms and are soon able to bring over relatives and arrange jobs for them. In Argentina they are also doing very well, however, the climate makes them suffer. Because they mainly emigrate individually, they loose a lot of their German heritage and their children are usually to a high degree Americanized. Today, the number of overseas emigrants over the last few years can be found in municipality registers. Emigrations numbers from Machliniec are: 1926 - 11 men and 5 women (a larger number as usual, because emigration laws used to be stricter); 1927 - 7 men and 5 women; 1928 - until July 4 men. The birth rate is not as high as in the beginning. An average family has between 3-4 living children. However, as emigration numbers show, there is still an overflow of young people. MARRIAGE The average marriage age is 18 for women and 23 for men. Old maids and bachelors are an unknown factor in Machliniec. Not one healthy young girl over the age of 25 is single. The moral situation had been better before the war than it is now. When a young man went with a girl, he would usually ask her parents if he may be permitted to visit sometime in the evenings. Then, twice a week, they would visit in the living room while her parents are present. Other times he would meet his sweetheart in the spinning room, at the dance or during walks on sunday afternoon. When a young man had a sweetheart he would usually visit her at night even before the marriage. Marriage among relatives is common. Since most marriages are within the villages of the settlement, marriage amongst - 24 - relatives is unavoidable. So far no negative results have emerged from these marriages. In recent times young men from the Catholic Swabian settlement Koenigsau have come to get their brides from Machliniec. They say about the Machliniec girls that they can keep a better household than any other girl out of their own region. People also marry into the Egerlander settlement of Poechersdorf, and to the mountainous Felizienthaler isolated dialect district. These marriages however occur only in small numbers. A stronger marriage connection with the latter district is also hindered by the difference in their domestic economy. Machliniec's economy is based on agriculture and nearly without monetary trade and has little other economy compared to the Felizienthal were people receive a weekly paycheck for their forest work. Marriages to Felizienthal have therefore not been proven successful, because most women could not adjust to and handle the different economic system. When a girl married outside the village, there have been some cases of marriage between Germans and Poles. Usually these marriages are not very happy, and soon there are fights because the man is often too slovenly for the woman. It has also happened that a German girl married a Ruthenen, but those are rare cases to which the whole village shakes their heads. HEALTH/HYGIENE Overall, the village's health is good. There are a number of people who are over 80 years of age, however, the average age is 65. The original settlers who had come by foot and worked hard clearing the land, are still famed for their excellent health. There had been a few amongst them over 100 years of age and some 95 year olds ate sauerkraut and dumplings like "young ones" and walked by foot the 6 kilometer distance between Kornelowka and Izydorowka. Naturally, on can't forget that some died at an early age because of the hard work they encountered. At times a few adults became victims of tuberculoses. Amongst the children there used to be epidemics of diphtheria and scarlet fever, which were devastating during some years. Doctors are in Zurawno and Zydaczow the district town. They are summoned to the village only for serious cases. A lot of ailments are self-treated. Pneumonia, for example, is treated with cupping glasses and vetch. Men often suffer from hernias which developed from their hard work. The poor sanitary conditions in the area become obvious when serious illness occurs. One avoids the neglected hospital of Stryj and takes serious cases to Lemberg. The village has one unlicensed midwife. - 25 - INTELLECTUAL/SPIRITUAL LIFE During the past few chapters we looked at the settlement's situation and now we turn our interest to the Machliniecs themselves. - The farmer remains on his farm, which is his most important possession. The farm house sits back off the road and boarders directly onto the main fields. A path leads directly from the farm to the fields. This path stretches along the entire property and serves as a natural border to adjoining neighbor fields. Neighboring farms never use the same path, even though it would give each an extra piece of precious land; no, each farmer must have his own path over which only he can rule. A community pasture doesn't exist. Each farmer has his own herdskeeper who takes the cows to pasture. These outer circumstances coincide with Machliniecs' character. A Machliniec farmer is a steadfast person who has his own opinion - a man for himself and self-confident. Material things are very much in the foreground of their thinking, as with all eastern settlers who had to struggle to survive. For this reason he is to some degree isolated and lives mostly for his family and farm. He hardly associates with others during the week. Significantly, there is no inn in the village of Machliniec. A building in the center of the village was an inn, but it is not used because the license would not pay for itself. Only the hall is used when a dance is held and the merchant, who opened a store in the former inn, is allowed to sell and serve beer. It is the farm - the seclusion - that mainly determines their lives. The second important component is the village - the community life in the village. The men only meet on sundays before church services and in the afternoon during the community meeting. This gathering of men, where each of them is their own strong individual, also gives them a strong sense of unity. They feel like a community. This sense of community is special about Machliniec and sets them off from other settlements. The harmony of each farmer's individualism with their partiality for community life is also one reason for their good reputation amongst East Galician settlements. This unity is shown in everyday community life. For example, everyone helps out to build a building. The builder organizes all materials and invites the men. They arrive in needed numbers to connect beams into a frame and stem the $mrrows. About 50 men are ready alongside when it comes time to raise the framework. The builder supplies the food and serves a "Hebbora" (beer) after the raising. Ahead of time, the participating - 26 - people send butter, eggs and baked goods to the builder, so it will not be too expensive for him. Once the framework is erected, the builder and his family surface the inside. Again, everyone gets together to complete the walls and to throw the clay. This makes for fairly inexpensive building and Poles and Ruthenen are envious of it. However, they have not been able to imitate it. "When one has nothing to do and is lazy, it doesn't occur to him to help a neighbor stem a farrow." This unity only appears during these rare occasions. Other times everyone pretty much keeps to themselves. This unity shows even more when the community comes forward as a political union. The settlers are proud of their community and are even willing to make sacrifices, despite their strong materialistic attitude. They identify themselves as members of a model community and feel obligated and are willing to keep the community as such. They have always been partial towards common German issues and actively participated in the founding of the "Bundes" (Alliance). In the Alliance they represent themselves as a secure and reliable troop. The religious life in the settlement is lively and sincere. It is a matter of course to attend sunday mass and the sunday afternoon blessings are also well attended. In the following description of customs it will be reported how important the Christmas and Easter holidays were. During lent, prayer sessions are held at home and the father leads in the prayer of the litany and the others, while kneeling around the table, pray along. The May prayer sessions are well attended. A prayer before and after the meal is common. The mother prays with the children morning and evening prayers. The church is a central point in the community life. It is the sole place where the community and settlers from surrounding German settlements gather as a whole. Before sunday mass they walk around the church in a festive procession and then they attend the German sermon which is followed by mass during which they sing German church songs. The fact that the German minority group in the villages of Lubsza and Mazurowka, which belong to the Polish parish of Zurawno, have become totally denationalized, shows the significance of the pure German parish in Machliniec. Machliniecs have always fought for German preservation in their parish and gave the parish priest strong opposition when he tried to change to Polish. The present priest abstains from any kind of denationalization act and is on friendly terms with the parish. Therefore, priest and community live in a peaceful subsistence. - 27 - The school is a public school. A Polish female teacher conducts the lessons in German. The teacher lives a secluded life. The school does not influence the spiritual life of the village in either a positive or negative way. Family is the essential part of the community life. One works among family and spends spare time together. The feeling of family solidarity is therefore very strong. Clubs and Organizations: There is a local group of the "Alliance of German Catholics" to which all men belong. This local group owns a quite extensive library. Sometimes they hold meetings when, for example, the chairman of the Alliance, headteacher Reinpold, or guests from Germany come to visit. Moreover, there is a district agricultural organization, which is only viewed as an economical organization. A German Farmbureau/Credit Union has its offices in Kornelowka. It's only used hesitantly because one has no confidence in money and one exchanges it quickly for land and realties. OTHER GERMAN VILLAGES IN THE SETTLEMENT Machliniec is also the spiritual center for the six surrounding villages which make up the settlement. Kornelowka is somewhat in competition with the "Colony" (that is how Machliniec is called). It is significantly smaller and only counts 200 inhabitants but it is likewise pure German and economically very well to do. Some Kornelowka farmers have as much as 100 Joch of land. But the unity of the community differs them from Machliniec. Especially the rich farmers are proud and try not to fit in. Material things stand above all else. Also, they are not members of the "Alliance" and even let their children study in Polish schools. Therefore, a gap is created in the unity, which is badly felt by the rest of the community. A jew from the early settlement also stays in the village and no matter what mean tricks the local boys play on him, nothing convinces him to leave. Politically, Kornelowka is not its own community, but belongs to Nowesiolo. Nowesiolo counts next to Machliniec most of the Germans. Originally this community was Ruthenic. The few German settlers in the beginning spread themselves strongly and also Polish people settled here. The Germans bought most of the land and made up in numbers already more than half of the population. With the incorporation of the village Kornelowka, Germans made up 2/3 of the total settlement. The mayor is always a German. - 28 - Here the Germans do not settle as a whole unit, but wherever they could buy in - between Poles and Ruthenen. The village's exterior image is therefore not as nice as in the pure German villages of Machliniec and Kornelowka, and their community life is insoforth not so appealing. "It's just a mixed nationality there in Nowesiolo," say the Machliniecs with an undertone of sorrow. The people from Nowesiolo readily admit: "Yeah, living in the colony would be nice!" There is one advantage to this mixed settlement. Cheap labor is easily on hand because the Ruthene farms only a little and is available as laborer when needed. The village Dresseldorf (officially Wola Oblaznicka) has an exceptional position among the settlement. The village, with the exception of a few Poles, is pure German and is incorporated into the Ruthenen municipality of Oblaznica, who treat Germans considerately. In contrast to other settlers on the language island, who are full-time farmers, inhabitants of Dresseldorf only own small houses and very little land, and usually go into "employ". They also are the most fun-loving people of the settlement. Unlike the other villages, where only the young people participate in entertaining events, here also the old people celebrate alongside the young. "It's incredible that they can't get enough with their fun," say the serious Machliniecs. The Egerlander traditions, tales, songs and dances were also better preserved in Dresseldorf. Even today they still have a costume parade on the monday during shrovetide, which was abolished in Machliniec after the war. In Izydorowka only 20 farms belong to Germans, but they hold most of the land in their possession. Machliniec has good and direct connections with Izydorowka. This stands also true for Controvers which is a direct scion of Machliniec. The inhabitants of Controvers are also farmers, but own little land. They belong to the municipality of Izydorowka, but feel a strong common bond with the "Colony". The relation between the colonial settlers and the host nation is also a crucial point for the intellectual and spiritual condition in this language island. There is a certain attitude that is common to all Germans in this area. Walter Kuhn's remarks in his book on "History of Origin" on this particular attitude were right to the point. What he says is that the attitude of self-evident preponderance is characteristic for the young colonial settlers. In keeping with this character and not necessarily a national consciousness, explains the greater productivity and efficiency of the settlers. This feeling of preponderence lives subconsciously within the people. One has to only see the great confidence a German displays in talking and dealing with Ruthenen. The relationship towards the Polish - 29 - is not any different. The "Masur" is considered as dirtier as the Ruthene and gets no sympathy. Their main attitude, even though often subconsciously, is that of preponderance. This does not necessarily result in unfriendliness in their daily affairs. The Machliniecs, no matter how secluded they live, display amongst each other, and in dealings with outsiders, a friendly manner. They also do not lack friendliness towards the people in the surrounding settlements. They are objective, down to the point, and know how to get their will, but they remain friendly throughout and try their best to get along. Therefore, they keep a good relationship with the Ruthenen, the Polish nobility and the administrative authorities. This is also characteristic of the settlers. They live in good terms with the surrounding communities and have the ability to understand them and are obliging. In spite of this friendliness, they know how to succeed and when attacked can be hard and inflexible. A priest, who transferred to Machliniec from a Polish area, who thought he could deal with the "Swabians" in the same manner as with the Polish farmers, soon had to state: "You have to watch out, everyone is their own man here!" Their opinion of the surrounding communities' cleanliness is not very high. When one wants to express mismanagement, one would say: "It looks like a Masurian household," or "Like a Russian pig sty." They will also proudly tell the story of a Polish priest who came to visit the clean houses of Machliniec and soon asked in astonishment: "Do you only use water to clean, or do you have something better?" The Slavs in the surrounding areas are envious of the Germans. They live better, eat better and dress better. There is always the common question of "Why do the Germans have such a good life and we do not?" The previously mentioned priest said to mayor Weiss: "I don't understand, the Polish and the Ukranians are on the same ground as you and have as much land, but they don't live as well." The mayor answered: "That's due to a little thriftiness and diligence. By ten o'clock in the morning the Ruthenen used to still stand on the street. About 20 of them with their arms crossed, guessing puzzles, talking and only go to work in the fields when the sun is high. You would have never seen a German lounging around like that. We have lots of work and before even more as one has to thresh all winter with a flail and to hoe the "earth apples" (potatoes) with a hoe, and so on. And all along the people remained high spirited and good natured." This better lifestyle simply results out of the settlers' better productivity and efficiency. Work is done quickly and efficiently and when they, for example, finish fertilizing the fields, the Ruthenen will only have started with it. - 30 - There is no doubt that the surrounding Ruthenen learned a lot from the Germans. In later chapters we will discuss how they even adopted some of the German architecture. Also, some customs were carried over by the Ruthenen. For example, it is still a custom to serenade the bride on the eve of her wedding day. At the beginning of the wedding dinner it is customary to have bride and groom cut a loaf of bread in half. The pieces are kept to see whose piece begins to mold first. Friends of the bride and groom would stand guard in front of the building. All these are customs that were formerly used by Germans. They have disappeared amongst the Germans but are still practiced by the Ruthenen. The Ukranian wedding customs are not listed in Piprek (Slavic Courting and Wedding Customs, Stuttgart 1914). The Ruthenen also learned better working habits from the Germans. They are no longer the dreamy and little occupied people of the early settlement. Despite the Polish oppression, the Ukranians in East Galicia are going through a cultural upward swing. Business organizations, and dairy cooperatives are being established in their villages and already they have cultural organizations and reading rooms. The German cultural measure is quite higher compared to the Ukranians, but is leveling off. There would be the task by the German mainland to foster the German culture in the settlement. The preservation of this language island is significantly facilitated by these cultural differences. The Germans get along well with the administrative authorities. They are considered as insignificant by the authorities. The authorities are not prejudice towards the Germans. Naturally, the relationship was far better before the war. Even though the Poles had nearly gained complete power in Galicia, the Austrians wanted to win the Germans over by giving them free reign. Since 1870 the official language had been Polish and all administrators were Poles. However, the individual village leaders knew and took advantage of the fact that the administrators became more agreeable when a "Complaint to Vienna" was mentioned to them. This Austrian support is now gone. The community, however, can not complain about bad treatment from the authorities. District mayor and municipality secretaries meet the second day of each month in Zydaczow to receive their instructions. Because of its orderliness, Machliniec is always brought up as a good example to the Masuric and Ruthenen municipalities. Taxes are always paid on time and their men are the best and cleanest at draft time. Entertainment functions were forbidden after the war, because of some incidents. However, Machliniec was the only community allowed to have entertainment functions - evidence of the great trust the authorities have in this community. The Germans have an irreproachable relationship with the authorities - the best way to live. 3. THE SPIRITUAL TRANSFORMATION Visitors to the Egerland language island soon recognize the development of people from the Tachau-Plan-Koenigswart area into people of a German settlement in East Galicia. This development is not easily explained and put into words. It is only felt, and if its presentation should not be determined by personal feelings, one has to find a foundation upon which one can derive comparisons and conclusions. The possibility of describing the Egerlander in a comparable way and to present their traits on how they keep in character or not for the Machliniecs, has therefore to be excluded. Such descriptions are found in some of the written materials, but lack the basis for a solid foundation. Also, such sketchy descriptions often only describe the people of the Egerer town area, which in folklore descriptions often are shown as representatives for all inhabitants of the area. These descriptions are only of partial value to the inhabitants in the area around Pfraumberg. This method would have a better foundation in characterizing the Swabian villages in Galicia. These "Swabians" are actually Rhenish Palatians, a nationality which was given an excellent description in W.H. Riehl's book The Palatians. To present the intellectual difference of the settlers objectively, one has to go by the impartiality of the intellect, to view the poetry, customs, lifestyle and material culture. The second part of this research, the folklore of Machliniec, along with observations of the present situation and the historical developments, serves as a foundation for our statement. In the beginning of our research we have to look for the cause of developments which separate the settlers' character from that of the nationality in their homeland. We can point out three facts: 1) the development of the settlement itself; the move to foreign lands and the founding of a new homeland; 2) the effect of the land itself with its different landscape and climate; 3) the surrounding people - their distance and differences. These three factors form the peculiarity of this language island. We will try to detail the effects on the colonial settlers of Machliniec. The Machliniecs are realistic and fact continous. The disappearance of believe in myths and ghosts, as still quite common in their homeland, is proof of the realistic attitude that emerged during the settlement. His attention lies in materialistic items and he will not be cheated. That is also a reason why he speaks both Slavic languages common to the neighboring nationalities. This is quite unusual, since it is - 32 - said that Egerlander never thought much of foreign languages. He also manages to speak Jiddish if he has a lot of dealings with Jews. The Machliniecs, who had been imprisoned with other Germans in Russia, wondered why these other Germans only spoke German. They managed to achieve a lot for themselves and their comrades, simply because they managed a good understanding with_ Russians, Poles and Jews. One therefore deals with an industrious individual who keeps his eyes open. It is therefore very fitting that they in their little secluded East Galician settlement study the newspaper to inform themselves of going cattle prices in Vienna, Ostrau and Bruenn. It is the information they need to make cattle sale and cattle transport decisions. They are not too nostalgic: The house is rebuild if it is deemed necessary and more practical; and they ordered chemical fertilizer once they read about its effects. Farm machinery is purchased dependent on the size of the farm. Even though this is not as common in Galicia as it is in Bohemia. They do not shy away from work and everyone lends a helping hand if needed. During harvest the fully loaded wagons drive through town so fast that the Russians and Poles are simply astonished. The pace of work is in total contrast to the normal spirit of this eastern landscape, where normally the pace is slow and everything has its own regular rhythm. This pace has not been adopted by the Germans. To the contrary, they have become stronger and more industrious than they had been in their homeland. A typical expression used is: "And already!" One doesn't take the time to finish a sentence. "A few men worked together, and already!" - meaning that the work is already done. They display a confident and superior attitude towards the neighboring Slavs. Why is the settler so progressive, industrious and confident? Again, we can refer to Kuhn's work "History of origin", who points out: Who is the person who begins a 1000 kilometer journey east into the unknown - Leaving the well established life of the homeland? Not the propertied classes or the common people. No, the venturesome move out. The strong, the progressive, the adventurous and the poor, who do not have much to loose anymore, but can gain something through hard work. It is an elitist group of people - young at heart and very much alike - that moves out to establish a new settlement. People, whose senses are strongly geared towards the present and willing to succeed. The difficult and hard clearing work also brought about another elite. Many gave up. The ones that make it are used to hard work and work becomes a necessity of life. Not only do they work more than the already established settlers, but they also brought along better methods from their homeland. Therefore, they are superior to the original inhabitants and feel as bearers of a higher lifestyle. - 33 - The settlement process has already a strong effect on the people. Just as evident is the effect on their customs. What has been lost in the Machliniec customs might have been forgotten during early hard times of settlement. The Egerlander customs stayed fairly well preserved. The customs, which surround the annual Egerland festivities, are again found here. Especially those in connection with church festivities. Some we find no longer in practice: The Johann Fire, common to the homeland, during the mid-summer festival is no longer practiced in Machliniec. It may have been lost in the difficult times of the clearing because there no reference can be found. Also land and people of the area contributed to their changed development. The land where the settlement was founded is undeveloped and much younger than their homeland. Especially the economic situation is on the lowest level. Therefore, some community types were preserved that had already disappeared in their homeland through certain developments. Because of the growing and spinning of flax, the spinning room is still in full operation to this day. This shows that an important form of community life, which is of great importance to the younger generation, has been preserved. The shrovetide has suffered a loss of its usual jollity. As noted earlier, the people have become more serious. Wedding festivities are shorter, the songs are calmer and entertainment events are only attended by young people. This seriousness had not been caused by the misery during immigration. It is reported that indeed the early settlers had been very fun loving people. It is caused more by the feeling of being cut off from old ties and after all being in a foreign land that brought about the change. No matter how strong of a hold he has over his land and how proud he is, he is still in a foreign land and "Germany" lies elsewhere. He doesn't admit to this feeling, but it affects his carefree attitude which is the only thing to bring about a carefree joyfulness. This change becomes most obvious when one listens to their songs. Only very rarely, and only when spirits are high, do they sing the old joyful songs. Otherwise they sing other, more serious songs and the way of singing is a lot harsher compared to the singing in other villages. This harsh way of singing is typical of the Eastern settlements and we have noticed it in all visited language islands. Their own song repertoire, used only during holiday festivities, but otherwise using the same songs as other German settlers in the East, is a good indication how strongly they already have settled in the area. The constant confrontations with the surrounding nationalities, the cut-off feeling from the nationality's mainbody, the constant struggle for contention and accomplishment has created a common mentality which is expressed in the songs of the young people as well as - 34 - in the strength and harshness and work energy of the older people. This constant unsettled coexistence of nationalities, which always demands attention, also brings about a strong interest in political issues. The settlers often develop an extraordinary ability to deal with the people of the neighboring nationalities, and also show great interest in their own village's public issues. Therefore, this small community of 500 settlers built a village hall in which the men gather on a weekly basis to discuss common issues. Newspapers are followed with interest on Pilsudskis speeches, reports of Ukranian student revolts in Lemberg, the questions about the annexation of Austria with Germany and on the politics Germany pursues with Russia. The close coexistence of nationalities creates an inclination towards politics, which coming from the common man also shows great understanding of the whole. An inclination quite unusual for a village of its size. The original farmhouse layout has changed since the founding of the settlement. The roofs have become shallower and instead of a loft one has now a storage attic. This proofs practical thinking and usage of all possible space. Also the drawing room decreased in size. This change is definitely not without meaning, because a farmer's living room is his "second skin". The farmer's large drawing room had a special function. It was the community room for the entire family. And more, it had to be spacious enough to also accommodate visitors and the girls who gathered to use it as a spinning room. This drawing room had to accommodate many village people and so became somewhat of a "Village Home", but had to be at least big enough to comfortably give room for the family and all other m members of the farm. The Machliniec, however, no longer lives for the whole of the village. He has become more of a "Master", who lives secluded and also keeps a certain distance from the non-German farmhands. This development resulted partly out of their relationship with the Ruthenen and partly through their success. More emphasis is given to the individual than the community. The individual family has no need for a large drawing room. They rather nicely decorate the living room, so it will look presentable and impressive to the visitor who comes to see the master of the house. Because of its size, one doesn't like to see it being used as a spinning room. The spinning room circles therefore have to meet in the old homes, where large drawing rooms are still in existence. One can still find plenty of old homes in Machliniec. - 35 - These nicely decorated rooms have a very homely effect. It is undeniable that the Machliniecs went through a strong bourgoisistic transition, especially after the war. The developed cooperative system in the years 1910-14 characterizes that the lifestyle-during this period was not of a simple agricultural nature. This lifestyle was even further promoted with the presence of wealth and through contact with urban Germanism. The war posed a determining disruption in this cultural development. The cultural developments and achievements of the pre-war era were demolished and the village had to resort to their natural lifestyle, a style of a more boorish nature. The Galician landscape was not without influence on the settlers. It becomes very obvious when colonial settlers from Felizienthal-Annaberg (on the north side of the Carpathian mountains) come to visit the plains. The mountain people lead a cleaner and livelier life and are not as "stiff" as the people down in the plains. Very much in contrast to the hard working and serious Machliniecs who keep to themselves on their individual farms. So, our people have changed in many aspects. The refining process of the settlement has influenced them along with the struggle with their new surroundings. Dialect, customs and establishment are proven indicators that their heritage remained strong. MACHLINIEC'S FOLKLORE l. The village layout and house styles Machliniec's original layout is well proportioned - an authentic colonial settlement (see map). The fields border in equal size on either side directly onto the farmhouse. On the southwest side of the village commons lie the "small properties" of which each farm house owns one. Also, each farm owns one of the diagonal pastures which lie in the south and southeast. The farm grounds, the "small property" and the "Sjechover" part, which is another name for the diagonal pastures, add up to a total of 19 Joch of property. Flurkarf e von /'lachhrn-ec. No L VosivEo Genmirw'c•v,W 1 a yunun i ty for

/zYcOrU wk Q Based on the original layout of the settlement, there are 25 farms on each side of the street. Perpendicular to the street, the road from Nowesiolo stretches through the middle of the village and continues on the other side towards Krehowka. At the down-town intersection of mainstreet and the road there are 12-13 farms on either side of the mainstreet. In the area of the mid-intersection are the reserved building sites fol church, school, forge and pub. Later a community house was built next to the intended forge building site. The church was moved a little northwards and a rectory was built opposite the church. Through the years land was added to the well proportioned fields and the remainder of the Machliniec manor was parcelled. Therefore, new pastures were added to the old ones and the village was able to grow beyond the pre-determined size of the colonial settlement. It grew especially from mainstreet on eastwards. The field names give us good information about the original properties. The following fields are found: the farm grounds "the small properties or fields" and the "Schechuver Part" these are the original fields of the settlement. Then the "Hout", the former pasture which was parcelled and today is arable land; and the meadow, the manor's forest, the municipality forest which borders onto Nowesiolo, the "Judn Wald" (Forest of the Jews) and the forest. The forest has - 37 - mostly disappeared today. Most of it is arable land with an occasional meadow in between. The meadow bordering the arable land are named after the fields name (i.e. Wiesen-Meadow). Let us turn our attention to the house itself. Initially, the farm had been laid out in an L-shape form. the main building is 32 by 8 1/2 meters; the diagonally placed barn is 16 x 8 meters. The farm house sits on the part of land that borders the street. A front garden, of about 15 meters in length, joins the house with the street. The main house is placed in such a way that the windowless side points westward and the entrance side points eastward. The gable end side pointing towards the street has three windows. At this end of the house we find the large drawing room (5 1/2 x 6 meter), next to it the bedroom (2 1/2 x 6 meter). Then we find the fore-part of the house which is entered from the front yard through the front door. The fore-part of the house also serves as the kitchen. The oven is built in the wall directly opposite the front door. As far as the oven has not used up too much space, the living room is comfortably connected behind the front room. At the side opposite the large drawing room, one can enter the stable through the fore-part of the house. Here you find a partition of about 8 meters in length for the cows and another one of about 3 meters in length for the horses. The rest of the stable, approximately 8 meters in length is used as storage area. In some older homes, the stable is not directly connected to the fore-part of the house, but is placed on the side behind the large drawing room and living room. In that case, the stable can only be entered from the living room and not directly from the outside. With this style, the house is not build larger lengthwise, but has accordingly lesser stable and storage space. The dunghill is right in front of the stable door. The rear farm house area is bordered in by the diagonally placed barn. The barn's threshing floor has a width of about 3 1/2 meters. The sheaves are piled up equally at the right and left front of the barn. Most older houses have a very steep roof which offers quite a lot of attic room, which in some cases is partially finished. The gable slopes towards the street side. .l1 C+ e h .l1A 0 L/nr

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v6JfSrulcp Joy~IrJh . G Cr c.•-1 c vqe /CV 441.$ -11 The newer house layout, which became popular around 1880, stayed fundamentally the same and only small changes have been made. It has become custom to erect a storage shed directly opposite the main house. It is a little but sturdy building with a floor space of about 6 x 6 meters, and is used to store flour, grain, other provisions, unused clothing and other seldom used household articles. The farm offers enough space for the storage shed. This shed also saves the people from constantly having to climb the steep steps into the attic. They also have another advantage: Because the shed's loam ceiling under the normal roof, it becomes fairly fire proof. Even though the roof might burn, fire is unlikely to get through the loam ceiling. Since the use of these sheds, larger attics are no longer needed and new houses are being built with lower roofs. Because of these lower roofs sloping is not as decorative as it was on the steep roofs, and therefore disappears altogether. The main house remains the same size in length, but becomes narrower in width. The gable end side now bears only two windows. The settlers' character changed more to seclusion. Each family is in a house for themselves. One no longer needs a large drawing room, a smaller comfortable living room is plenty. A stable width of 7 meters, compared to the 8 meters in the old style, is now sufficient. - 39 - In recent times they discovered a more advantageous innovation: One, without getting any closer to the barn, builds a shorter main building, eliminates the storage area and connects the house directly with the stable. One therefore, gains more room between the gable end side of the house and the barn - where the dung hill can be placed - and the stable door can open in that direction. This eliminates the stable door directly next to the main entrance and one is less bothered by insects. Since this style eliminates the storage area, the barn has to be enlarged. The barn now is build bigger and has two entrance doors. This new style continued facing the houses with the small end towards the street. Only in some rare instances some houses can be found (only four in the entire village) that face the street diagonally. These houses are called "Zwerchhauser" (house that sits diagonally to the road). As it is common in the Egerland, each house has its own name. Mostly they are named after the owner. A few names are listed here: Bo'n Buehner-Wenzl-Toni, sollner-Thaddes, bo'n Moiserappen, Hansmichl-Adelbert, Sime-Toni-Hanes, Paik-Christof, Karl-Adl-Jakob. The ground on which Machliniec is build has a large layer of loam and this layer is only covered by a thin layer of humus soil. Therefore, loam became the most common building material. The foundation is laid with stones that are transported from a nearby riverbed. The frame is mostly built out of oak beams. The outer walls are individually build on the ground, then picked up and raised. Then the inner walls are inserted. About 50 men are needed to raise such a 30 meter long outer wall and the entire village helps out. Once the four outer walls and the inner walls are securely standing, the roof truss is attached. The roof truss is usually build by a carpenter while everything else is usually build by the builder with the help of fellow Machliniec village men. The beams of the frame are trimmed. The framework beams for the living quarters are connected with planks. These planks are then covered on the in- and outside with a layer of loam that is mixed with straw. Over this layer comes a finer layer of loam that is mixed with barley. Then the walls are being smoothed out and left to dry. Walls that surround the stable and barn are made by placing sticks in certain intervals on the grooves of the scaffolding through which loam processed straw ties are woven. The so developing walls are first covered with a rough loam layer followed by a finer layer. The ceiling is constructed in a similar way. One uses shorter loam processed straw ties. These are being wrapped tightly around the stick, another stick is placed firmly against it and wrapped together, and so on. Also, - 40 - the ceiling is then covered with layers of loam and smoothed out. Once the walls have dried, they are chalked and then do not look any different than brick walls. The only parts in the house built of brick are stove, oven and fire place. Once the loam walls are completely dried they keep the heat in and allow a comfortable living. Straw used to be used to cover the roof, but today ("Taschle") trimmed cement shingles and tarpaper are used. Summing it up, the settlers have retained the basic style of a Frankonian house including the interior layout of livingroom, kitchen and stable. They only changed in accordance to the materials available and their needs. Their building style is not the least influenced by the surrounding people, with the exception of a little wooden projecting structure over the front door which is called "Ganek". These are found on a few houses and one can assume that they originated out of Ukranian influence. However, their building larger, clean and airy building style has had a tremendous influence on the surrounding area. Today one can find in the surrounding Ukranian villages houses that have been copied after this German style and are not built in their usual Ukranian style, which are small and muddy huts. Even otherwise the Machliniec construction style has an exemplary effect. The connection that the Machliniecs build between the church entrance and the bell tower is presently copied in the nearby Ukranian village of Ruda. There, however, it is senseless, because the gates do not form an entrance and the whole structure sits on a plot right next to the street. But it is considered fashionable to build in the same fashion as the Germans do. The street from taken care off. gardens and are gardens are enclosed Driveways from the Machliniec The house partially by street gives gables covered either lead the impression of being well are always behind the fruit by tree tops. The fruit hedges or picked fences. in regular intervals on either right or left side of the farm to the farm house. A well kept sidewalk is on one side of the street. Interior Design and Customs Without exception, all furnishings are made by Machliniec carpenters. The styles have drastically changed since the founding of the settlement. Furnishings in pure Egerlander style are still preserved from earlier times; beautifully painted and decorated trunks and wardrobes. Even around 1880, furniture were still painted and decorated, but the painting style is less lively and very concise. The base color changed from green to brown. Presently it is easier to make the furniture in a plain style. Usually the Machliniec carpenters learn their trade in the village. One or the other young man, however, takes his apprenticeship in Stryj or in another town, where he also learns new styles and fashions. The local master carpenters are always eager to stay atop the current trends. A regular costume is no longer in existence. They remember that they used to dress different, but since a long time now they - namely the men - dress masterful. The older women have mainly preserved the country style of dressing. They wear a "Peiker" (a short jacket) which lays tightly around their hips and a valance skirt covered by an apron. The younger women and girls wear simple cotton jumper dresses which suit them well. The bodice and skirt are usually made out of differently printed material, (i.e., the skirt might be striped and the bodice be plaid). The dress is sleeveless and the long sleeves of the undershirt protrude out of the dresses armholes. At work the women usually were a long apron, which buttons at the neck, over the dress. On sundays they dress urban like. For church the younger women wear white and the older women dark or black headscarves. The men's attire doesn't bear any great significance. The working clothes are similar to the ones of a German farmer and on sundays they wear their "good" coat. In the wintertime the clothing has to be appropriate for the area temperatures. They wear boots, baggy trousers, a fur coat and the "Kutscha" - the fur cap. Since the surrounding Ukranians still wear their white linen outfits, the German attire bears a definite distinction. However, the Poles dress similar to the Germans, just a bit dirtier and lately even they began to dress more urbanely. Only the Germans have the style of simple linen jumper dresses which the women wear on weekdays. 3. THE CUSTOMS The church year begins with the Advent season. This is a quiet time for the eastern settlement. The happy celebration of "Kirwa" (consecration) is over - the last dance was on Katherine's day. There is peaceful anticipation in the whole village life. - 42 - On the eve of And.reas (November 30) one can look into the future. The settler's sober mentality does not let superstition arise and this custom is practiced in a humorous fashion. The girls pour liquid lead into cold water and the resulting hardened figure or shape is then used to interpret their future life and future mate. There is also another way to interpret the future. The young people get an armful of firewood and carry it into the living room. The one who has an even number of logs will marry in the coming year. The person with an uneven number of logs will stay single and is being ridiculed. The visits to the spinning rooms begin early in November. Machliniec has two spinning rooms. One at the upper and one at the lower end of the village. The young girls visit one and the older the other. There they sew, spin or knit on weekdays. Saturdays are an exception. They say: "If you want to go on Saturdays, you have to bring a wisp of straw." They also gather in the spinning rooms on sundays, but only for conversation. Their visits usually last from 6 to 9:30 p.m. Spinning wasn't hardly done before the war because it was cheaper to buy the finished linen. During the war it became very rare and only after the war became a valued necessity. Since then more flax is grown and they fabricate tableclothes, handtowels, linens and shirts. The shirts however, are made without sleeves. They purchase sleeves that are already finished and are made out of a better material. The distaff is still used in Machliniec and the girls have an unbelievable talent in turning the spindle. The more progressive girls use a spinning wheel which is a lot faster than a distaff. The young men also visit the spinning rooms to hold conversation and tease the girls. They sing together and at times the girls put their crafting tools away to play party games. One of the games, for example, is "Chase the Goose into the Garden". The boys and girls stand in a circle and ask: "who owns this goose?" "It belongs to X," cries someone. "Shall I let it out?" "Yes!" Then he/she tries to catch the goose. The couple that stands closest to the goose when he/she catches it must take the next turn. A variety of other games are played. Until Shrovetide the spinning room is filled with activities throughout the winter season. On December Sth St. Niklas comes to the spinning room and to homes with small children. His outfit is rather scary. He wears a fur that is inside out, a fur cap, a straw belt, has straw wrapped around his legs, even has a chain draped across his shoulders and carries a scythe. He comes to the homes to reprimand and warn the little children, and also jokingly the adults, and hands out little gifts. - 43 - The Christmas season is nearing. The peace and anticipation of the Advent season comes to a peak. Breakfast is not eaten on December 24th and a lenten fare is eaten at lunch time. The manger is set up and Christmas songs are sung in the evening. The evening meal is a feast. In addition to the-usual delicatessen they add fish, if available (but at least herring), strudel and dried pears and plums. On this night the cows receive oats that have portions of each dinner dish mixed under. On Christmas eve the adults stay up all night. At midnight they attend midnight mass. Afterwards they decorate the Christmas tree and sing Christmas carols. While the children are sleeping, the Christmas gifts are laid out on the table, as if Child Christ had left them there for the children to find. Or the Child Christ, all dressed up in white, comes to visit the children. The doorbell rings and the Child Christ enters. The children will pray before him and then receive their gifts. The Child Christ is accompanied by the "Zemperer" who is dressed similar to St. Niklas. It used to be custom that the men would visit their neighbors on Christmas day morning to wish them Merry Christmas. This custom is no longer practiced. One wishes each other Merry Christmas as one happens to meet on the streets. However, the children go caroling from house to house. They used to even perform a little play, but no longer. Before the war each boy would receive a gingerbread man from their godfather and each girl would receive a gingerbread doll from their godmother. Such sweets were not available during the war and inadvertently this custom ceased to exist. As during Christmas, the men used to visit their neighbors to wish them a Happy New Year. Now only the children visit and recite the following poem: "We wish you a Happy New Year, Contentment, Harmony, Long Life, Prosperity and last not least the Kingdom of Heaven." During Epiphany the parish priest goes from house to house to consecrate. The sexton accompanies him and marks the C+M+B symbols with chalk over each door. The priest and the sexton receive gifts during these rounds. The German children no longer go Epiphany caroling, but the Polish children from nearby Krehowka come caroling through the village and ask for small gifts. The festivities of the Christmas season end in peace. - 44 - The jolly Shrovetide begins with Mad Thursday. Before the war this day was especially celebrated. In the evening they would dance and drink in the local pubs. "Mad Thursday is mad and complete." Today, this statement is no longer valid. Today, usually this Mad Thursday is the last day of meetings in the spinning room. The girls buy a keg of beer and pay for the musicians. This gives them the right to ask the boys to the dance. The actual Shrovetide begins with Shrovetide Saturday and reaches its peak the following tuesday. A school dance is held in the afternoon of Shrovetide saturday. That is when the school boys and girls get together and have their only dance of the year. The young people have their dance in the local pub on Shrovetide sunday. The older people gather in the pub to talk and drink on Shrovetide monday. Before the war there used to be a fancy dress parade through the village on Shrovetide monday. Young men would parade from farm to farm. One would be dressed as a shoemaker and carry along a long brush with which he would try to clean the shoes of people he could reach. Another would dress like a tailor and chase people in order "to mend a hole" in their garments. They had plenty of such characters. Some even carried a basket or a sack. These were the guys that would usually collect the gifts. Generally they received eggs and bacon. These masqueraded young men would celebrate all day throughout the village. On Shrovetide tuesday the festivities come to a peak. The dance starts right after lunch. The younger people dance in the drawing rooms and the older ones in the pub. This dance, just as other dances, is arranged by the young men in the village. Two weeks prior they send a delegation to Dresseldorf to hire a music band. They usually pay the band with a certain amount of wheat. The young men also have to provide for the musicians transportation to and from Machliniec. Everybody equally shares the cost of the music band, however, the men pay for the girls' drinks. A parade that lasts about an hour is held during the dance. Afterwards the girls disappear and return dressed in their brand new outfits. For about an hour they remain at the dance in their new dresses. Then they go home again to change back into their regular clothing. The girls and women are supposed to dance a lot on Shrovetide tuesday so the flax crop will be good. The old people also attend the dance, however, mostly to watch and later escort the - 45 - young girls home. With the ringing of the church bells at 11:30 p.m., the dance is over and Shrovetide comes to an official end. Nowadays people do not drink as much during Shrovetide. The young people dance and the older ones sit together and talk. Happenings are very frugal now. The celebrations were much more active before the war. Under auspice of the student association, Shrovetide was tightly organized. They elected a Shrovetide king and queen and they hobbled on Shrovetide tuesday. The young men (boys) were categorized into "Only Paying Members" and "Boon Companions". "Only Paying Members" were boys between the ages of 14-15, who paid their share of the dance but were not yet allowed to buy drinks. They only had the privilege to dance with girls in their own age group. The "Boon Companions" were the actual organizers of the dance. They covered the balance of the dance's expenses once they had received all payments from the "Paying members". They had the sole right to open the dance with their partners. Amongst themselves they nominated and elected the Shrovetide king and queen and also determined the order of the opening dance procession. The elected Shrovetide king, accompanied by a fellow "Boon Companion", would visit the parents of the elected Shrovetide queen and request the honor to have their daughter as his Shrovetide queen. The permission was always gladly given, because it bestowed honor on their daughter. The Shrovetide queen would be picked up by the Shrovetide king, who would bring along a small music band, and then take her to the dance. The other girls would also be picked up by their dates and escorted to the dance. The band would set up and start playing dance music. The first ones on the dance floor were the King and Queen, who danced three dances in a row. Afterwards the other couples would join them in a set processional order. So the girls stood in this set processional sequence at every dance throughout the year, and jealously watched over the other girls, so no one would skip a place ahead. After a while of dancing the hobbling began. A bench was set up in the middle of the dance floor and the Shrovetide king would sit on it, holding two stacked plates in his hands. The local mayor and a juror, each holding a candle in their hands, would sit on either side of the king. It was customary that the girls would attend dances free of charge throughout the year. However, this dance was an exception. The girls had to bring a donation. These donations were collected by the Shrovetide king and since they added up to be a large sum, the mayor and juror attended the collection in a supervisory capacity. - 46 - The hobbling proceeded in the following fashion: Two young men were selected to take turns with the dancing. Beginning with the Shrovetide queen, they would dance each girl three times around the bench. Then they would stop directly in front of the bench and the girl's mother would come up and place a certain amount of money into the lower plate.- Mayor and juror had to be able to see how much money was given. The plate then was covered with the other one and the next couple began their dance. Since nobody wanted to be outdone by the other, large sums of money were collected. Sums of money that could have bought several Joch of land. The Shrovetide queen's mother usually gave the highest amount, but from time to time it would happen that even she was outdone by someone else. After all donations were collected, the Shrovetide king, the mayor and juror would count the money. The donations were used to cover all dance expenses and what was left over was equally shared amongst the men. They would usually spend it on alcohol, so they also didn't really make good use of it. The basic purpose of the hobbling was that at least once a year the girls, who normally always attended all dances free of charge, would pay the guys expenses. The younger ones wouldn't participate in the hobbling, but usually would stick a coin in the boys jacket while they danced together. The election of the Shrovetide queen causes a lot of jealousy and bad will amongst the girls. However, the young men were usually able to make a very objective decision. They usually had no quarrels about their decision making. They normally chose the girl of whom they thought could make the largest donation. The custom of hobbling was practiced until the beginning of the war. The war wasn't necessarily the cause of its discontinuance. It was the mayor's order of 1914, in which he ordered that all dance expenses were to be equally shared by everyone involved, in order to prevent the annual loss of village revenues and bad will amongst the girls. On Ash wednesday everyone goes to mass and receives an ashen cross on their foreheads. This is a sign for the beginning of lent. "Shrovetide is burried," is a common saying. The village people strongly abide by the fasting rules. The willow catkins are blessed on Palm Sunday. On sunday afternoon people take a walk through their fields and place the blessed palms into the ground in order to bless it and assure a good harvest. The old folks say: "If you don't place blessed palms in the cornfields, the Bilmezschnitter (cutter) will come. - 47 - He has a sickle on his big toe and when he walks through the corn a third becomes his." A number of blessed palms are kept for their homes. During a thunderstorm one of these blessed palms is thrown into the fire so the house will be protected from lightening. On Maundy Thursday the church bells "die". Well, they don't die, but they are not being rung. Instead the Rattleboys move throughout the village. In the morning, the afternoon and evening they point out the hour of the "Lord's Angel" with their rattles. During church services, the ministers use wooden rattles instead of bells. The boys begin rattling on Monday Thursday afternoon. Once they are done they go from house to house. Their route is exactly planned out. Each one knows which farm he will visit. At each farm they receive money and eggs. The people don't grudge the boys fun, because they have a hard job, especially when the weather is bad. Good Friday is celebrated. The village is very quiet on this day. The animals are taken care off, but otherwise only the absolutely necessary tasks are being performed. Young and old go to church and pray. On Good Saturday one goes early to attend the water and fire blessings. One brings home holy water and pieces of left over charcoal which are placed in the holy water. When, during the Glory of the mass, the church bells begin to ring again, everyone, who stayed home, runs outside to shake the fruit trees so they will carry lots of fruit in the coming year. At the same time one also pours water on the roof to "prevent fire". On this day the priest also goes from house to house to bless the white bread, called Paska, sausage, meat and other foods. On Easter Sunday one only eats of the blessed foods. The priest receives for this service a small donation of 2-5 Zloty from each household. If he doesn't accept the money, one usually sends butter or other foods to his house. On Easter Sunday everyone washes their bodies outside in the courtyard with water that had been placed there very early in the morning. This is customary in order to prevent rashes or other skin diseases throughout the year. Early at dawn they celebrate resurrection, which used to be celebrated on the evening prior. In the morning, easter eggs are simply given to the children. Children do not hunt for easter eggs. The boys go out to pound their eggs. Two boys will pound their eggs against each others and the boy's egg that - 48 - is damaged first, must be given to the winner. The children receive red eggs from their godparents. High mass is held at noon. In the afternoon one visits relatives or takes a horse buggy ride through the countryside. The sunday following Easter is White Sunday. During the night prior to White Sunday, the boys whiten the windows of the homes of the girls of their fancy. Therefore, the girls must get up early to clean the windows right away. The girls are not allowed to be seen outside during the afternoon. The boys move through the village and girls that are found outside are drenched with water. The spring seeding usually begins during this time. One should, however, never plant the seed on a friday, because it is said the seed would not grow if planted on fridays. The phrase "In God's Name," is said when the planting begins. Water is poured over the plough after it returns from its first time out to the fields. On the eve of May lst, witches used to be banished. They would crack the whip so long until they believed to have chased the witches away. Then they placed pieces of grass in front of the stables and the front door so the witches would not be able to enter. They left this grass until it rotted. Today, it is customary that the young men bring a Maytree in the morning of May 1st. This is usually a small decorated birch tree, which the guys usually fasten at dawn in front of the girls bedroom window, on the gable or in front of the house. Before the war they would tie little presents, like a ring or a colorful scarf on the tree. When you wanted to tease or anger a girl, you would tie a band of straw on the tree. A large Maytree near the pub and the usual celebration connected with it no longer exists. May 16th is a highly celebrated church festivity. St. Johann von Nepomuk is the church's patron and his saints day is therefore grandly celebrated. The day begins with an early high mass. In the afternoon they hold a procession from the church to the statue of the Saint, which is located in the upper part of the village. One of the early settlers carved this wooden statue. The same settler, by the name of Schneider, also carved the statues of Apostel Petrus and Paulus that stand on either side of the church altar. Usually one or two out-of-town priests participate along with the parish priest in this procession. - 49 - At Pentecost the herd keepers get up early to bring in the cattle as fast as they can. The one who is last is the "Pentecost Tail" and must endure a lot of mockery. From early on one can find busy activity in the stables and on the streets. A herd keeper will call one who is behind him a "Pentecost Tail". _ Pentecost sunday is just as Easter sunday, a great day of celebration. The special treats of this day are "Koichle". A procession, which starts at the church, proceeds to the four altars that have been erected on Corpus Christi day. The altars are decorated with small birch trees and wreaths. These decorations remain in the church for one week, because the second Corpus Christi Day follows within a weeks time. On the eve of the second Corpus Christi day, the people get the wreaths and birch branches from church. The birch branches are placed in the flax fields to ensure a good harvest. The bigger the birch branches, the bigger the flax is supposed to grow. The women are eager to find the biggest branches. The wreaths are carefully kept at home. Because they have been placed in church for eight days, they are supposed to guard against thunder and lightening. The wreath is either hung outside of the house or thrown into the fire during a thunderstorm. They used to like to make the wreaths from a plant called "Christ's Sweat", because once these wreaths were hung on the clay walls, the plant would continue to grow on the wall. These wreaths were considered to bring lots of luck. The season is turning towards summer. A busy time of the year with little festivities and customs. The Johannis mid-summer festival is not celebrated. One of the few Christian celebrations is on Maria Skapulier. There are also the church festivities in the nearby church of pilgrimage in Kochawina. Everyone, who can make the time, joins the pilgrimage and attends confession in Kochawina. Polish processions, with people who come from Sokolow, Bolechow and other far away places, come through town. The celebration of St. Anna is on July 26th. The festivities are held in Zurawno and all Machliniec women by the name of Anna take a pilgrimage to Zurawno. The corn is ripe in July and the harvest can begin. The farmers drive to the surrounding Ukranian villages and hire, depending on their farm size, harvest help. When they return to the village one can see the Ukranians in their colorful costumes and listen to their songs. One can hear their songs for the next few days. In Machliniec the corn is cut with a sickle, because labor is cheap. Sickle cutting also prevents the loss of too much corn. The cutters stand in long rows in front of the - 50 - cornfields and slowly cut their way forward. The farmer himself has the supervision and bundles the corn. Six sheafs of corn are laid, heads inwards, around one centered standing sheaf. Five additional layers are put on top of it until the bundles are big and round. Each bundle usually contains 31 sheafs. Once the corn is cut, wheat and barley are harvested. This is usually done right in a row and the Ukranian workers stay until the work is done. Once the harvest is over they used to celebrate the "Tolok". They would make a wreath out of wheat and place it on the farmers head. They would sing and wish him blessings. Then the farmer would invite them for schnaps and cheese. This custom is slowly disappearing. Only when very old Ukranians help with the harvest, the "Tolok" is still celebrated. Unless there is a wedding, there are no dances throughout the summer. Because as long as there is corn in the field, from the time the first heads show, nobody should dance because one could "stomp the corn right to the ground". Therefore, people are really looking forward to the "Harvest Dance", which is held once the harvesting is done. "Everyone is happy, when the crop is in. Now one can afford to drink and dance." The dance is scheduled on a sunday when already most of the harvesting is done. It starts at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The priest holds mass earlier than usual that day, or he lets out early, so the young people can attend the dance. Before the war the Recruit Dance, in honor of the current recruits, followed a few weeks after the Harvest Dance. However, this dance is no longer held. The actual Harvest Thanksgiving is celebrated on Consecration sunday towards the end of October. A custom they preserved without doubt from their homeland. It always puzzled the newly to Machliniec transferred priests, why the people here made such great preparations for such a simple festivity. Three days before the festival the houses are cleaned from top to bottom and everything is put in its proper place. Finally, the priests realized that this festival was of great importance to the village people. The people bake the consecration cake and the dance begins on sunday. The younger ones (14-17 years of age) have their dance at a private home. The older ones 18 years of age and up, have their dance at the local pub. They break for dinner but then continue the dance right afterwards. This dance can last until 4 o'clock in the morning. On consecration monday they start up again. An hour parade, similar to the Shrovetide one, goes through the village. Everyone is dressed in their newest clothes during this parade. Again they dance until dinner time. After dinner the dance continues until about 2 or 2:30 o'clock in the morning. Then the celebration is over. Brawls, which were nearly unavoidable in the homeland during the consecration celebration_, used to break out, but that was a long time ago. Now it seems improper to the Germans to have a brawl amongst themselves. They never heavily indulged in alcohol, and especially since the war are drinking very little alcohol. The following sunday is the Post-Consecration day. It is not really celebrated and dances are not held. The All-Saints Day celebration is already influenced by the shortly afterwards following All-Souls Day. A procession proceeds in the afternoon to the old cemetery. Women are tying the wreaths they will use to decorate the graves the following day. At dinner they eat hard rolls and drink milk. On All-Saints Day it used to be custom that each child would receive a "Striezel" (baked good) from their godparents. A procession to the new cemetery is held in the morning of All-Souls Day. One lies wreaths on the graves and lights candles. Some unknown soldiers are buried in the old cemetery and each year individual farms take turns to also lay wreaths on those graves. On All-Souls Day the new graves are blessed by the parish priest. The last dance of the year is held the sunday before St. Kathrin's day (November 25), just before the Advent season begins. Life Customs The Birth The birth of a child is surrounded by a number of superstitious notions. Some of which that are in variance with hygiene are no longer practiced, but most of them have been preserved, especially those that carry inner meaning. A pregnant woman must be careful not to see a blind or crippled person (i.e., someone without a foot or arm). "Because it has happened that a pregnant woman saw someone without one arm, and when the child was born, one of its arms was missing." A pregnant woman shall receive whatever she is craving. If she craves a food and doesn't get it, it could happen that when she touches any part of her body, the child will have a birthmark on the same spot on his/her body in the shape of the food that the - 52 - mother had craved (i.e., a salad leaf, a raspberry, etc.). A similar thing happens when the mother gets scared or spooked by an animal. Children often have birthmarks in the shape of a mouse. If the woman gets scared by fire, the child's face will be covered with fire marks. If she sees a corps, the child will be just as pale and never get any color. A pregnant woman also should never kill chicken or geese, or for that matter kill anything, and should not accept any handouts. If she does, her child will misbehave and steal. Generally, the mother shouldn't do anything unfair or bad because such actions could be transmitted to the child. Once the hour of labor came, they used to lay a rosary around her neck and stick a prayer book under her pillow. She had to have her wedding band on her finger. After the birth the mother should not change her gown for at least eight days, not comb her hair for eight days and her bed should not be fluffed up for three days. The straw in her bed should not be changed for at least six weeks after the birth. Otherwise the woman would not gain her health back and the child would be without fortune. The midwife would stick the scissors used to cut the umbilical cord in the bedstraw. The umbilical cord was supposed to be kept in order to give it to the child, who is supposed to tie it into knots. The more knots the child can tie with it, the more luck it will have. For six weeks after the birth, the mother is not left alone. During this time bad spirits could get a hold of her and cause her damage. Also, she is not allowed to cross a border for nine days after birth. Not only the mother, but also the child should not be left alone during the first six weeks. The changeling could come along and replace this healthy child with a weakling that will soon die. In order to protect the child from the evil during this time, a rosary is placed in his crib. Also, the lights are not turned off during this time period. During this time span the child is not washed with water, but with milk, and butter rubbed on his body so he will get a smooth skin. The bathwater should not be dumped on the dunghill, but on the grass, so the child would grow better. During these six weeks, the child's diapers are not hung outside to dry, so the child would be prevented from sickness. If a woman on her period would visit the newborn, the child would get a skin rash that could not be healed. - 53 - If someone praised the child, they had to say right away: "God protect", so it would not be ill reputed. However, if you tied a red ribbon on the child's shirt or hat he could not be ill reputed. Red swaddling bands are therefore mostly used. Once a child has been ill reputed, one can retrograde the situation in the following manner: One takes nine knife tips of ember out of the fire and extinguishes them in water. One has to count backwards during this ceremony. The child's forehead is washed with the water used to extinguish the embers. While reciting the three highest spirits, some of the water is poured three times in the child's mouth. The knife used to get the embers is stuck in the doors threshold and then, while again reciting the three highest spirits, the remaining water is poured over it. If the side of the knife that points towards the interior of the house gets covered with dirt, someone from their own household ill reputed the child. If the side that points towards the outside gets covered with dirt, someone who doesn't belong to the family ill reputed the child. Rain should also not fall in the child before he is a year old, because rain could cause freckles. Also, one shouldn't cut the child's hair or fingernails before it reaches the age of one. The mother, however, is allowed to bite the child's fingernails off. The child should also not be allowed to look into a mirror before he is one. The Baptism The length of time between birth and baptism depends on the health of the newborn. If he is sick, the baptism is performed as quickly as possible. If he is healthy, one waits 8-14 days. The midwife goes "godfather petitioning". For this service she usually receives a gift from the godparent. She receives gifts (usually flax) from the parents of the new mother and her in-laws, while she receives her payment in cash from the immediate family. She usually gets 5-7 Zloty from the godparent and 10 Zloty from the family. Only one godfather or one godmother is requested for each child. The child receives a cross over his head during the bath before the baptism. This child is wrapped in a new and special cushion and also receives a new shirt and hat. On the day of the baptism, the godparent, dressed in festive clothes, comes to the house for breakfast. He or she gives out candy to the older children in the household. Just before they leave for the baptism ceremony he or she slips an envelope of money (usually 1 Dollar) and a picture into the child's pillow. When the godfather or godmother carries the child through the front door, the midwife holds a prayer book over their heads and says: "We - 54 - carry out of this house a bad heathen, a good Christian we will bring back." One strives to get to church during high mass. The baptism is performed right after mass. The common first names used to be Matthew, Michael and George. Today, probably influenced by the names of the emperor's house, Franz, Karl and Josef have become the most popular names. Other popular names are Johann, Stanislaus, Adalbert, Ferdinand and Wenzel. Names such as Maria, Klara, Amalia, Anna have replaced the formerly popular names of Mariannl, Susanna and Liesl. Liesl, however, still has remained widely popular. The baptism is celebrated after the church ceremony. Godparent and midwife return from church, and also brothers and sisters of the parents and the grandparents come to visit. A festive meal is brought out during which the midwife entertains the party with her stories. The mother and mother-in-law of the new mother bring chicken and other delicious dishes. Otherwise it is also customary to bring the new mother food during each visit. The baptised child is not bathed the day following his baptism, so the precious oil is not washed away. The new mother usually again attends church services six weeks after the birth, sometimes even sooner. However, the first visit a new mother should make is the one to church. Which weekday or holiday she chooses to attend is up to her discretion. In former times one would go for blessings after mass.: After mass, the mother and midwife would step in front of the altar to pray. The mother then received a burning candle from the priest and he would bless the child. The priest received a donation for these services. Once the first church visit is over, the mother and her child can make other visits. The first visits are always made to close relatives (mother, mother-in-law, brothers and sisters, etc.) and then to friends and neighbors. The mother should always nurse the child during an increasing moon phase, so the child will gain weight and be well developed. She should not nurse while the birds are migrating during spring or fall, but rather wait until just before or after, so the child will be less hyperactive. The child grows up more or less hanging on mother's skirt tales or being taken care off by older siblings. One doesn't have all too much time to spent with the little one. Once it can walk and start climbing the fruit trees in front of the house, he or she is given small chores. An outsider soon notices that the children here are not so wild and misbehaved as elsewhere. One - 55 - seldomly hears screaming kids, even though there are plenty of them in the village. Fights and similar occurrences are rare. Children are given household chores from an early age on up. A 10-year old girl can clean house by herself. She dusts, sweeps and cares for the animals in the proper fashion. She is also able to tend to guests when mother happens to be away from home. The father only has to give her orders. The children usually attend school from the age of 7 until the age of 14. In general they learn well. The instruction is given in German. In all public schools only geography and Polish must be conducted in Polish. The instruction of the Polish language has very little success. The young men learn the language at a later date in association with other Poles. The settlers learn the language easily. The girls completely forget their little learned language instruction. The young men used to have their own fraternities, of which the "Boon Companions" (ages 17-20) was the strongest. As mentioned earlier, their group organized the dance and had their say and would not allow any interference. Once someone had been a member of the military, they no longer would qualify as a member of the "Boon Companions". These men usually already had to take care of a farm and were on the look-out for a bride. They still participated in the dance, but had nothing to do with its planning and organization. The "Boon Companions" were together very often. They strolled on the streets in the evening and sang. They were together in the local pub or they sat under a tree on sunday afternoons and played music. In the wintertime they often visited the spinning room and if a big and bad trick (i.e., stealing all milk cans and stacking them up in front of one farmer's farmhouse) was played on anyone, everyone knew that they were behind it. This unity has been destroyed since the war. There are some camaraderie groups but no strong fraternities. The girls used to spent more time in the household than they do today. They would only attend a dance if picked up by an escort. It would have been a disgrace to attend a dance without having been asked by a young man. The relationship between boys and girls was one of which a girl could refuse a dance if she didn't like the young man. It also happened that a mother would give a young man a few coins, so her daughter would find an appropriate dance partner, especially if the daughter was rather ugly or unpopular. Today, the girls attend the dance unescorted. During the evening, one also sees them more often walking through the village streets. This used to be viewed as highly unproper. - 56 - The young man meets his future mate usually at entertainment functions in neighboring villages, or during walks on sunday afternoon. Conflicts between love and money, the aspect that parents pay most attention to, sometimes occur. The resolution of this conflict often depends on who is easier convinced - the father or the son. The relation between lovers used to last long, often five to six years before they married. Today "they can't wait". "They already speak of marriage after only dating each other for about a year." The Wedding When a young man seeks a girl's hand in marriage, he initially sends his cousin to accost the girl's parents. During the cousin's visit he speaks of this and that - after all it is not polite to directly address the purpose of his visit - and finally changes the conversation topic to property. He ends his conversation with: "I came here to...." The girl's parents reply that they would think about the request and that he should inquire again in two or three days time. After this waiting period the cousin makes another visit to the parents house. If the parents give their approval he asks if they would be allowed to make the acceptance visit the following friday or saturday. The groom's entire family accompanies him to the acceptance visit at the bride's house. The bride's relatives are also invited and a small dinner is prepared. Pastries (Lezeltla) and schnaps are offered. The groom, his family and the bride's family sit around the table and begin the negotiations. The bride stays in the background. The older people hold the negotiations and the young people have no say in it. Once the groom inherits the farm, the bride comes to live with him on the farm and her parents secure a provision (see details under Judicial Systems). The younger sons used to get their inheritance in cash, but since cash is now considered as insecure, the bride's and groom's fathers each give a few Joch of land and build the couple a new farm on the edge of the village. Once the acceptance is given, the groom hands his bride, who is dressed in her best clothes, secretly the "Earnest Money". The custom to introduce the wrong bride to the groom after the acceptance is no longer practiced. A few days after the acceptance, bride and groom and their fathers, or relatives who will then serve as witnesses to their marriage, visit the priest to register. The priest will publicly announce their marriage intend for the next three sundays during services. The bride and groom should not be present during the first announcement, but should be present during subsequent announcements. - 57 - The wedding invitations are made eight days prior to the wedding date. This task is usually handled by either the father or mother of the bride or groom. "On such a day and such a time the wedding of my X will be held and we hope you can attend." The invitation of godparents and confirmation parents are done by he young couple. The day before the wedding the young couple goes early to church for confession and communion. On that day the couple's families are busy baking and preparing for the upcoming wedding. As their contribution to the wedding, the invited relatives send butter and eggs to the house. Wedding presents are not common. Only the godparents and confirmation parents give the couple wedding gifts. Before the war, it was customary to serenade the bride on the eve of her wedding day. This custom is no longer practiced in Machliniec, but has been taken over by surrounding Ruthenen settlements. At dusk on the eve of the wedding day all baked goods are brought from the groom's house to the bride's house. The wedding is usually scheduled on a Tuesday or a Saturday. Monday is a "tough day" and brings no luck. "What you begin on Wednesday doesn't last very long." "Friday is a real unlucky day, because Friday is the day that was the hardest on our Lord." One shouldn't even bake bread on a friday and at one time shouldn't even braid hair. Some other aspects that are being paid attention to are: One should always marry during an increasing moon phase because that brings luck. A lot of attention is paid to the weather on the wedding day. The weather can predict if the marriage will be nice or stormy. In the morning of the wedding day, the groom's relatives gather at his house. Cake and schnaps are available and they wait until everyone is present. Once everyone is assembled they get ready to leave. The groom kneels in front of his parents, or in front of the oldest and nearest relative in the case that his parents are deceased, who will bless him and wish him good luck. Then the musicians begin to play and the procession proceeds towards the bride's home. The groom is in front followed by the maids of honor, the best men and all other relatives. If the groom comes from another village, he should come to the bride's house on a carriage. However, he or any of his relatives should not own this carriage. It must be owned by someone else, or otherwise he will have bad luck. The bride's mother greets the procession in the front part of the house. She wishes good luck and invites them to enter the - 58 - house. The bride's relatives are already assembled in the living room. The bride however, is nowhere to be seen. Out of her hiding place she has already seen the groom heading the procession to her house. After she saw him, she retreated to another room in the house or into the attic. It is said that whoever, bride or groom, sees the other first on their weddingday will control the marriage. Both families sit together and the groom is seated at a specially decorated bridal table in the corner of the room. They drink schnaps and eat cake. Once everyone is gathered, sausage, coffee and tea are also offered. The couple's fathers visit and tend to their guests. Once everyone has eaten, the tables are cleared and only the cake and schnaps remain. It is time to go to church. The musicians head the procession. The two best men go to the attic or an upstairs room to get the bride. The groom, led by the maids of honor, steps towards the door. A lacy white piece of cloth is laid down, and as the bride enters, both kneel on this cloth. He is on the left side and she is on the right side and both of their backs are against the door. The musicians play a serious tune. Beginning with the grooms parents, followed by the bride's parents and their grandparents, the couple receives their blessings. The bride begins to cry and the musicians play a jolly tune and the procession begins to move towards the church. The procession is headed by the musicians, followed by the bride in between the best men, who is followed by the groom in between the maids of honor and finally the rest of the wedding party. The fathers usually walk behind the procession. The couple's mothers stay at home because they have to prepare the meals. The procession happily proceeds towards the church. Only the bride is still crying. During the procession, and especially in front of the church, the bride and groom should not look around, because if they did, they might become unfaithful to each other in their marriage. Very much attention is paid to the candles during the marriage ceremony. If they flicker, the couple will have a lot of fights. If one candle goes out, the person who stands closest to that candle will be the first to die. After the marriage ceremony the relatives walk up to the newly weds and say: "Good Luck in your marriage." Some closer relatives even kiss the couple when giving their wishes. The young couple and their invited guests give the sexton a small monetary donation on their way out of church. As soon as the people step out of church the musicians begin to play and the procession happily proceeds to the pub. The groom with his bride, the best men with the maids of honor and the wedding guests. Only the two witnesses, usually the couple's fathers, stay behind to sign the marriage certificate and to invite the priest to the wedding. - 59 - The dance begins in the pub. The groom and bride must dance three dances in the row. Otherwise she will be kidnapped and he would have to pay a high ransom to get her back. The dance lasts from about 11:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. During this time there is a lot of traffic between the bride's home and the pub to keep a steady flow of cakes and pastries going. The drinks are served by the pub. Around 5:00 p.m. the mothers of the couple arrive to announce that dinner is ready and leave right away. The wedding procession, headed by the musicians, moves towards the bride's home. The bride and groom walk behind the procession. When the procession arrives at the bride's home, they find the doors locked. Bride and groom should be the first ones to enter the house. Some try with all sorts of tricks to gain entrance into the house. They shout: "Hey, they are here! Come on, open up!" But the door is not opened until the bride and groom can actually be seen and heard. Finally the door is opened and the bride and groom enter to be greeted by the mothers. The mothers drink a schnaps to the couple's health and offer them sugar cubes or something sweet so their lives will be sweet. The guests begin to pour in and also demand some of the sweet offerings. Once the bride and groom are seated at the bridal table, the other guests are seated. A best man and a maid of honor is seated on either side of the wedding couple. The parents are not seated. The fathers walk through the room and tend to their guests and the mothers are occupied in the kitchen. A beef soup is served followed by beef with horse radish. This is followed by Bohemian dumplings made out of raw potatoes, sauerkraut and pork. Beer is served with schnitzel. Also, applesauce, plumsauce and dried pears are served. The meal is ended with poppyseed,- marmalade,- and applestrudle. Young local girls serve the guests. These girls get a lot of teasing and are even bombarded with plum pits while leaving the room. The musicians play a few tunes during dinner, but mostly they indulge in the good food. Something has to be broken during the dinner, so the new couple will have good luck. Naturally, something always gets broken during such gatherings, but should it not happen, the best man will see to it. He, for example, will bang his plate to the rhythm of the music against the table until it finally shatters. Also, during dinner one of the bride's and one of the groom's shoe is stolen. As soon as the dinner is over, the best men and maids of honor move the tables into the courtyard. Everyone gets up, except the newly weds because they are without shoes. One of the best men must auction the shoes off. The bidding is rather active. The dance can begin once the couple has their shoes back. - 60 - It used to be custom that former friends of the couple would come uninvited to the wedding (Lejnhout). They would be seated in the front part of the house and be served with schnaps and cake. During the dance they would be asked to join the wedding party. Since it looked as if these young people were begging, this custom is no longer practiced. - Also, the "Proventl" custom has disappeared. It was the custom by which each wedding guest would wrap a little food after dinner in a napkin to take home. Today this custom is deemed as shameful and wasteful. However, both mentioned customs have become popular amongst the Ruthenen. The dance lasts until midnight. Then comes the presentation of the bride and groom. Both suddenly disappear and are searched for. After a short while the best men bring the bride and two women bring the groom back into the living room. The bride is without veil and the groom without his myrtle wreath. For about an hour the guests sing funny songs to the couple. Besides the singing, a lot of jokes are made during this presentation. For example, a young man dressed up like a Cossack, rides his horse into the living room, much to the great fear and confusion amongst the women. It is during one of those instances that the long stored cheer fulness and high spiritedness explode. In former times during the presentation, the bride's veil would be replaced with a bonnet. A silk scarf, specially made by the godmother, then replaced the bonnet. However, neither one of these customs are practiced today. After about an hour of the presentation, the couple has enough and leaves the party. They retire to their bedroom. If prior to that the guests know which room the couple will be using, they remove the bedslats, so the bed will collapse once the couple gets into it. The dance continues once the couple has retired. The dance lasts until 3 a.m. and then a late night meal is served. At about 4 a.m., when the meal has been eaten, it is customary to drag the couple with loud music out of their room. Afterwards the dance continues and depending on their moods can last until 7:30 a.m. Once all the drinking is done, they add up how much money the drinks came to and and an equal share is collected from each wedding guest, regardless if male or female, to cover the liquor expense. There is no charge for the food. If the dance is over early, the musicians will musically escort the guests home. Before that everyone will drink to the Johannis Blessing. All guests gather in front of the house and drink a shot of schnaps. Then the musicians will escort them home. In former times a wedding in Machliniec would last for three days. During those times people still wore costumes. The groom wore a big hat, carried a bouquet with long ribbons and a walking stick with long ribbons. The men danced in their shirt sleeves. They wore specially cut white linen shirts that had red woolen ties. Today, everyone dresses masterfully. The oven usually got tipped over at the end of the third day of celebration. The handing over of inheritance doesn't usually occur right after he wedding. Generally, people marry during the winter and the handing over is done during spring. If circumstances require it, the time span between the marriage and the handing over can take as long as a year and longer. Bride and groom usually remain with their parents and the groom goes to the bride's house to stay the night. At the handing over of inheritance everything is handed over in a fashion of continuance. Everything is in working order and there are enough provisions to last until the next harvest. The monetary dowry the bride receives is usually paid at the signing of the marriage contract or shortly thereafter, so it can be used to expand the farm or to build a new home. Once the handing over is completed the bride moves into the groom's house. She arrives with the chamber wagon. This wagon train usually consists of three to four wagons that carry the entire household and dowry of the bride (beds, wardrobes, kettles, dishes, etc.) Spinning women sit on the first wagon that carries the beds. One of these women throws dried pears amongst the people, so the couple's fruit will grow well. The cattle walks behind the wagons. - In former times a rope was tied across the street that the wagon train had to break through. Upon arrival at the new home, the wagons and cattle are blessed with holy water. Then everything gets unloaded and the cattle is led into the stables. Special attention is given to the fact that the cattle must use their right hoof first to enter the stable. - Beer, schnaps and food is served to celebrate the move. Death Upon someone's death the front door is opened up to "let the soul out". Mirrors are covered and the clocks are stopped. The deceased is washed and dressed, preferably in his wedding clothes, if these still exist. Then he is laid out on the viewing bed. This viewing bed is made by covering the table with straw and by draping blankets that reach the floor over it. The deceased's head is placed on a white pillow. - In former times death boards were common. It is said that at times presumably dead people would wake up and walk with this board through the living room. - The water used to wash the deceased should be disposed off at a place inaccessible to other people. Generally, the pan and the water are buried in the ground. It also used to be customary to burn the bed straw. The village people visit the laid out body. In the evening neighbors and relatives visit to pray the rosary and keep the death watch. At times the whole living room is filled with people. At first they pray and then they sit and talk. The men usually smoke. They usually stay until 1 or 2 a.m. and then go home. Only the close relatives remain until morning. The people that come to pray the rosary are not being served. The mourners stay as long as the deceased lies on the viewing bed. The body is placed into the coffin early in the morning of the day of the funeral. The mourners come to the house to bless the deceased with holy water. They kneel in front of the coffin and pray. The priest arrives and gives his sermon. Afterwards the coffin is closed and six male family members carry the coffin out. They make a threefold sign of the cross with the coffin - one over the bench the coffin had sat on; once over the threshold of the living room door, and the remainder of the holy water is poured over it in the sign of the cross. Someone will move the cattle around in the stable once the coffin is out of the house. A procession forms in front of the house and proceeds towards the church. The coffin, just as the cross and the two black funeral flags are carried by male relatives. The procession is headed by the cross, followed by the flags, the priest, the coffin, relatives of the deceased and all mourners. At a burial of young man or girl, six young men carry the coffin and an equal number of young girls carrying candles walk next to them. White funeral flags are used at a burial of a young person. There is no music during the procession. Mourners pray during the procession to church. The coffin is placed at the chancel and the priest reads the requiem. Alternatively a verse of a funeral song and the Lord's Prayer are recited during the - 63 - procession from the church to the cemetery. During a burial of a child the mourners sing: "Great God we praise you.." The new cemetery of Machliniec lies on the same spot where the first settlers had build the original cemetery on the west end of the village. From there one can see the dark ridge of the Carpathian mountains in the south. The procession leads to this cemetery. The coffin is paced over the open grave and the mourners with folded hands stand around it. The priest leads the prayer and everyone prays along. Then the coffin is lowered into the ground. Everyone throws three shovels of earth into the grave and together they pray "The Lord's Angel". Afterwards the mourners dispense to visit grave sites of their own relatives. The custom of having a beer in the deceased's honor after the funeral (Funeral Beer) is no longer practiced. That's when people would gather in the local pub after the funeral and drink beer until the early morning hours. The nearest relatives wouldn't stay very long but would send loafs of bread to the pub. People would get back into high spirits while they drank. This custom ceased right after the war. Another sermon is read four weeks after the funeral. The heirs gather after the sermon to distribute the inheritance. A last will is usually never made. The deceased's property is equally divided amongst his/her children. If the deceased had no children, his/her property is equally divided amongst his/hers next relatives. The relatives sit around the table, drink schnaps and discuss the division procedures of the inheritance. The end result of their discussion becomes legal. The relatives have a mourning period of one year. However, one can attend a wedding during this period, because amongst the people the opinion is that: "The wedding is more important and comes first." MEDICAL SCIENCE Quite a number of old men and women practiced healing. However, they wouldn't teach their knowledge to just anybody. The laying of hands and praying is a very common healing practice. Warts are supposed to disappear by rubbing a found bone over it and by simultaneously calling out the trinity. There are a great number of home remedies. Cooked lin seed is placed on purulent tumours to open them. Spiderwebs are used to stop bleeding wounds. A lot of remedies and teas are made out of herbs and leaves. A doctor is consulted when all home remedies fail. However, if the doctor's treatment doesn't better the condition, they revert back to their home remedies. Fortune tellers from - 64 - the neighboring Ukranian villages are consulted about some diseases were home remedies are not quite sufficient and the doctor's treatment is not trusted (i.e., some childhood diseases and insanity). MEALS The weekly meal plan is as follows: In the summertime one usually eats for breakfast a milk soup made either out of sweet or sour milk, bread and fried potatoes. The morning and afternoon snack usually consists of bread and sour milk. At lunch time rice or noodle soups along with puddings are served, and in the evening sour milk and potatoes are eaten. The sunday breakfast consists of coffee or hot chocolate, white bread and sometimes eggs. There is no afternoon tea on sundays. At lunch one eats soup and meat (poultry or pork). In the evening one drinks cold sweet milk and eats white bread. Favorite puddings are: Strudle, Koichle (flour dough fried in lard), Wuchtl (hard rolls), Riwanzle (Gussdalken - flour and cream dough fried in lard), Getzn or Totsch (dough made out of green graded potatoes, milk and flour). More meat and less milk is served during the winter because one ha slaughtered a pig or a cow. For breakfast one eats soup and potatoes and rarely milk soup. At lunch meat and a pudding is served and in the evening sour milk, potatoes, bread and tea. Thursday and sunday are cabbage days. Cabbage, dumplings and meat are served and sometimes Holuba (bacon and rice dumplings wrapped in cabbage leaves) instead of cabbage. Tea is only taken in the morning along with hard sausage or smoked meat with vinegar and bread. NATIVE POETRY/SONGS Songs give us a good insight into the spiritual character of the community. How and what is sung is an important determinant of the community's spiritual character. Machliniecs sing a lot. During the winter in the spinning rooms, then at the dance. When the dances are over for the year and a quiet period arrives, the girls gather with their arms around each other to sing and sway with the music. The young men sit on the benches and hum along. Also, during sunday afternoon walks, when a lot of young people meet, they love to sing. - 65 - They always sing as a group and therefore are often not able to sing the songs individually by themselves. "When we are together we help each other with the words to the song, but alone that is no possible." When we compare the practiced common customs in Machliniec with the ones from the Egerland around 1820, we find a quite astonishing harmony. Only very little is lost and the preserved nearly unchanged. The customs are better preserved here than in some communities in the Egerland. Since the customs are so well preserved, one would expect to also find the songs of the Egerland, but that is not so. Some of the songs sung by the older people are still from the homeland, but the majority of the song repertoire originated out of other sources. We shall view the present song repertoire. Three song books that were written by a Machliniec girl will serve as the basis for this research. In addition we will use songs that I have note down. To get an understanding of what songs were sung in the colony, we are listing the beginnings of the songs that the Machliniec girl had written down in her notebook during 1925 through 1927. These song beginnings give a good indication of the type of songs sung. "A French Man wanted to hunt a Chamois Buck all so silvergray.. "In the Valley where the Eastern Winds blow.." "Morningred, Morningred.." "As a youngster I wanted to know how one carries on at a young age.." "One can't be happier that at the Beginning of Summer.." "Let's depart through the Gate.." "What have I done to my Sweetheart.." etc. This songbook naturally doesn't give a true picture of the spiritual life. Some songs are frequently used, others hardly ever and some are even never used. The songs were learned and noted down. The personal knowledge of what songs are commonly used will help in our research. - 66 - woodcutters, that lies on the south side of the Karpathian mountains, already on Czechoslovakian territory. So we are dealing with songs that are common throughout the language islands in this part of the Karpathian mountains and to the forland of the Karpathian mountains. Even though catholic and protestant settlements hardly have contact with each other, there is a strong parallelism between Machliniec and the nearby protestant settlement of Gelsendorf. This parallelism originated through the Gelsendorf musicians who played their music in Machliniec as well as in Gelsendorf. This created a bridge for assimilation between the two settlements. Often the songs are very garbled. The text interchanges with melodies of other songs. Some verses move from one song to another. Often songs have verses that are different in length. An indication that verses from other songs replaced certain verses. The older people sing beautiful songs that obviously have their origin from Bohemia. These songs are still sung by the older people, but no longer exist in the song repertoire of the younger folks. The songs one hears in the spinning rooms and at the dances reveal very little of the old homeland, but are in conformance with the songs of the area settlement, regardless of nationality. We find that the native repertoire is better preserved in the village of Dresseldorf, where the people are poorer and more joyful. There, for example, a variant of the song "Schmoln Roin" is still sung. The picture completely changes when one looks at the four-liners an short songs that are sung at entertainment functions in Machliniec. They truly originate from the Egerland. It really seems as if Machliniecs again become Egerlander when they are in high spirits during these entertainment functions. That's when the four-liners flow just as they probably did at village functions in the Egerland. The "Besoffne Mettn" is a favorite song at weddings. Bride and groom sing together and at parts of direct speech man or woman sing their part alone. It begins: "As I walked home yesterday evening through the fields, I heard scolding, cursing, loud noises and fighting coming out of the room..." A colloquy is recited in the same way. Both are songs that want to paint a pretty bleak picture of marriage to the bride on or before the wedding day. - 68 - CHILDREN'S VERSES The children's poetry, counting verses and sayings that are common to Machliniec children are of various origin. For the most part they are true tradition, others are new and some might have been introduced in school. We find quite a bit of verses from the Egerland. Some that are even nowadays recited in the Egerland. Verses of ridicule about the colonial settlements were transmitted from the Swabian settlers to the German-Bohemians. PUZZLES One loves to give out puzzles. For example: "What runs and runs and never gets ahead? - The clock!" "How many chestnuts go into the basket? - None, one has to put them in!" LEGENDS AND STORIES When we now talk about the legends and stories in Machliniec, let me point out that it is not a reflection of their intellectual life there. These legends and stories are only told and respected by the oldest people. Not only do the younger generations know much about them anymore, but also the people up to their 60's. They decline them because they are only "fictitious stuff". Stories are told in the spinning rooms, but mostly stories that one has read in a book. In former times more stories were told but today books are read in the winter time, because the alliance established a quite extensive public library. We can notice that the library created a dark side in the village - it suffocates the individual's fantasises. Even though the legends and stories do not contribute to the present intellectual life in the village, we have to address them here as a contribution of knowledge from the older generation. We will see how well they were preserved from the old homeland. We notice that the old homeland legends were kept completely unchanged and are without a trace of Slavian influence. Most of these legends still take place in "Germany" - as the settlers refer to their homeland. These legends fade with the new generations as their lifestyle becomes more realistic. This development is even furthered by the establishment of the public library. The reading of books on long winter nights has replaced the story telling. - 69 - As an example, some of these stories are told here: "Do you know what money praying is? Well, let me tell you.. My father was a miller in Germany. He was with a rich miller who owned 60 Joch of land, a mill and a sawing mill. He had two farmhands, two maids and only one daughter. The miller prayed for money. The miller, the cartwright and some more men were in the drawing room and the miller's wife was sleeping in the next room. They drew a circle with epiphamy chalk and sprinkled themselves with holy epiphamy water. The chaplain had to read, after all, it had to be done by an educated man, because you are not allowed to stumble. Otherwise the entire magic is for nothing. So the chaplain read and they prayed for a while. Suddenly there were thundering and rumbling noises as if canons were going off and the whole mill would blow up. Then a woman appeared and danced around the circle. Suddenly she was gone. The women in the next room heard a bag of money falling, but all of a sudden the cartwright fainted. Now, if they had left the cartwright alone, who would have come to by himself, they would have gotten the money. But instead they ran towards the cartwright to wake him up. So it was all for nothing and they didn't get the money. When the hunger year came, my father was still at the mill and people came and raised their hands to beg for a little chalk." Another story about money praying: "When one has prayed for money and received it, the devil sits in the mill by the door. He will always sit by the oven next to the entrance. There was a miller who was very rich because he had prayed for money. He had many fields and drove twice a week to town to sell eggs, milk and butter. He basically shoveled money into his daughter's dowry. The devil always sat by the door. He had to have a milling stone in the mill that had to be sharpened for him every day. Nobody ever saw what was milled with it. But a silver twenty laid there every day to be picked up by the person who sharpened the stone. One day the red-haired apprentice was supposed to bring in a bunch of wooden logs from outside. As he walked by the devil he swung a log at him and hit him in his rear end. He said: 'What do you want here? See that you get away. I always have to sharpen your stone and never see what is grinded with it.' That's when the devil grabbed the boy by his red hair, stormed outside and went up into the air. One could still hear the boy scream, but he and the devil were never seen again." "In another mill the devil sat behind the furnace. Nobody was allowed back there because the devil would do evil things to - 70 - them. My mother worked there and received a lot because she stayed, but even she eventually emigrated." The image of fabulous creatures, which were common to the Egerland, continued in the same manner. They tell of a "Dragon", which is also common to the west Bohemian fabulous age: "The old Nickel, my brother-in-law always said: 'If I could ever see a dragon....' Well, one day as they were walking home late from a baptism, they saw a fire by the Oberschoelerer forest, where normally at night the black coach appeared. Nickel, already a little drunk, said: 'Look there!' And just as he said it, the dragon was there, flying over the roof tops and spitting fire. The sister started running towards their home and disappeared through the front door. Nickel, who was too drunk to run, just headed towards the first house and literally fell through the front door. And the dragon flew away." "My brother's son came home late from the field one day and said: 'A dragon is again coming from back there.' My brother, god rest his soul, looked out of the stable door, but came right back in because just as he was looking the dragon flew sparkling fire right over the house." "What does a dragon actually look like? Well, let me tell you a story... One day I helped in the delivery of a baby in Palitsch. We walked home through the Palitsch brush. There is a little shallow land and a creek runs through there. I didn't walk alone, the husband of the new mother accompanied me. He said to me: 'Let me tell you what I saw at this spot.' He was no liar. - Once he had to walk home late and used the brush as a shortcut. Suddenly he saw a fire. At first he thought some of the herd keepers had set a fire and he walked up closer. He was a soldier, but what he saw next made his hair stand up straight. Whatever it was, was only a short distance away from him. What did the creature look like? It had a head like a horse, but much larger; eyes as big as dinner plates and a giant tail. The tongue hung out of its mouth and its lips were red as fire. A terribly frightful appearance. A few steps away from him it got up and flew towards Controvers. - The man came home as fast as he could and arrived there drenched in sweat." So the legends lived on. Just as they talked about the dragons, they spoke about the "Bilmazschnitter", who had once been seen jumping out of a wheat field looking like a black poodle. Or they talked about the "Wechselputt" (Changeling), the kind wooden maiden, will-o'-the-whisps, and about the man with the boundary-stone who couldn't find peace. They also knew to tell of treasure findings and the return of the death. On a sunday morning a woman was alone at home. She needed some more fire wood and walked out to the shed. As she walked toward the shed, she notices a bright blue -fire inside. The woman was terrified, but grabbed for her rosary and threw it into the fire. The fire went out immediately and in its place was a pile of silver twenties. The woman didn't get any wood. She picked up the silver coins and put them into a drawer in the house. Then she had to lie down and she couldn't finish cooking the supper. As her people returned from church, they wondered what she was doing in bed. She told them: "Just look into the drawer and you will know what happened. And within a years time I will die." Her people looked in the drawer and saw the many silver coins and knew immediately what had happened. The woman got out of bed again, but only lived for another year. They say that one saves a soul when one finds a treasure. "There was a cartwright in a far away village in Germany, who wen to the market. He wanted to cross the border where a little creek runs. As he reached the border, he saw his neighbor standing there. His neighbor had died just a few weeks before. He wanted to cross the creek, but his neighbor blocked his way. He tried to walk passed him, but his neighbor continued to block is way. He didn't dare to speak to his neighbor. Suddenly the church bells began to ring for prayer and the neighbor quickly crossed the creek and disappeared. The cartwright went back home and became ill. So ill that he nearly died. He called for the priest and told him the entire story. The priest told him that it was good that he didn't speak to his neighbor, who probably would have spit fire at him. The neighbor's wife sat in the drawing room on All-Souls Day and suddenly she saw her husband sitting by the window. The wife was terrified. He stayed there until after mass, then he suddenly disappeared." They tell of other sinister visions: "Hans Michel Wenz's wife was from Soderufka. Her due date was near and she walked to her people in Soderufka. There were two other people there from the colony who accompanied her. As they neared the holy cross by the bridge there was a snow-white old man standing there. The wife walked in between the two other people and nearly collapsed from fear. As she came home she laid down. She became ill right after birth and died." A lot of things are said about these visions. There is the strange man while will suddenly walk beside you and disappear as sudden as he appeared. Or they talked of various strange - 72 - meetings that one or the other person has had. Or they talk about the black coach that appears on full moon nights by the Oberschoelerer forest. There are numerous stories of foreboding signs of death. As the horse was shying away outside, his master was dying at home. As the wife saw a black chicken going towards her husband's bed and then disappear three nights in a row. The old people know how to tell fairy tales in a very lively form. One we want to tell as an example: "Once upon a time there was a soldier who was a drummer. As he finished his military service, he started his way home. Since he was such a poor fellow, the military let him keep his drum. As he had walked a way, he met someone who told him to give him something. He met three people and he had given each of them something. The third person said: 'Because you are such a kind person, I will grant you a wish!' So the drummer wished for 'March in the Sack', 'Bottle of wine that never runs dry' and 'A pipe that never empties'. - As he continued his walk, he reached a village. He played is drum there. Well, there was a man whose chicken shied from all this drum playing and he demanded: 'Lock him up!' The people grabbed the drummer and brought him before the man. The drummer thought to himself: 'Well, fine.' As he is being brought in front of the man he says: 'March in the sack.' Then he took the sack and started beating on it. The man pleaded: 'Please let me out. I will give you everything you want.' Then he asked him what he wanted. The drummer said: 'Bacon and bread.' 'You shall have it,' said the man and he was set free. The drummer continued his walk and played the drum again. The people were everywhere and gave him so much bread and bacon until it wouldn't fit in his sack. The drummer said: 'Enough of this. I can't carry it all,' and proceeded his walk. He came to a castle. The people told him that nobody has ever been able to stay in the castle overnight - by morning every person who had ever tried was found dead. The drummer said: 'Well, we shall see. I will dare it.' The lord of the castle told him that if he was able to spent the night in the castle, he could live in it forever and he would also let him have his daughter as his bride. 'Now I will try for sure,' the drummer exclaimed. He entered the castle and went to the upper floor. He drank the wine, lit the pipe and opened the window and looked outside. As it became night time, he didn't dare to lie down. He just sat there and smoked. Around half past eleven o'clock he began to hear loud noises. The noises were in the house and suddenly the door flew open. - The devil with horns on his head came in and rushed towards the drummer. When the drummer saw that he devil was after him, he said: 'March in the sack,' and - 73 - he caught the devil in the sack. The drummer beat the devil dreadfully. The devil yelled: 'Let me out!' 'Only if you promise never to come back here again and only if you bring a bag of money - and not money that you took from someone else, but from the ocean.' The devil promised and left closing the door behind him. It didn't take long and the noises appeared again and the devil reappeared. This time even more furious s the time before and rushed towards the drummer. Well, the drummer stuck the devil in the sack and beat him again. 'You will only be let go, if you bring me three bags of money.' The devil promised. The first time he had a bag of money, the second time he had a bag of money, but the third time he rushed in, spitting fire and screaming so loud that the drummer became nearly fearful. But he said: 'March in the sack,' and then he began beating the devil again. The devil pleaded to be free. 'Only if you bring a room full of money.' The devil agreed. As he was outside the clock rang midnight and the drummer was in midst of money. He thought: 'That's something! I now have a castle and will also be getting the Lord's daughter as my bride.' He didn't bother to go to sleep. As it became daylight, he opened the window and smoked a pipe. The Lord came along and asked him how he was. The drummer asked him to just come up. When the drummer finished his story the Lord said- 'By God - you shall have my daughter as your wife.' - Then the drummer and the Lord's daughter had a grand wedding and lived happily every after. And if they haven't died they still live today." Only one legend is known that is tied into local factors and its content passed on from the Slavic aborigines. The legend is the one about the pillar that stands on the way to Zuravno. "When you go to Scherawena there stands a stone pillar along the way. It stands at the place where the Russians were defeated. The Russians had come across the river. The Polish King, by the name of Sobieski, called onto Archangel Michael because the situation looked bad. Archangel Michael appeared with his flaming sword and just as he appeared, the Russians retreated. So the Poles beat the Russians and forced them away. To commemorate the King they made metal busts of his likeness and installed them in the churches of Scherawena. Upon entering the churches they can be found to the right of the entrance." Not too many legends have evolved out of the settlements in this region. That is mainly due to the fact that Germans and Ukranians were and are too unapproachable to each other. The legends published in "Karpathanland" have their origin from Dresseldorf (Wola Oblaznicka), the settlement, as mentioned previously, that had best preserved tradition. - 74 - 5. THE LANGUAGE The settlers came, as shown in the index of places of origin, from various parts of the Egerland. Therefore, originally a variety of Egerland dialects were spoken in Machliniec. Since a majority of settlers came from the Tachauer area, their dialect became to be the dominating one and is now commonly spoken. Deviations in this dialect are seldom. One therefore says: "Er ist gstarm" (he died) and not "gstorm" as it would be pronounced northwest of Plan or "gsturm" as it is pronounced in the eastern Kaiserwald. For example one says "margn" for the next day, but "Gou's Morgn" for good morning. The "e" sound replaces the "ch" sound and the pronounciation is just as the one in the northern part of the Egerland. In the village only German is spoken. The women mostly do not know any other language. They used to know enough Ukranian, as it was necessary in the beginning of the settlement to communicate with the Ukranian help, but that knowledge ceased since the Ukranians learned German. Most men, however, are fluent in the Polish and Ukranian language. Some even have the command of Jiddish. It is therefore quite understandable that within time some expressions and phrases out of these languages entered into the everyday German use of the settlement. These expressions taken over by the native people in the area mainly cover the titles of furnishings, household items and equipment. Even expletives have been taken over. The word "taki" appears quite often within a conversation. A series of words that today do not even seem foreign anymore: "Retschke = Buckwheat", "Ganek" = the projecting structure over the main entrance of homes common to Ukranian homes that became also common on German homes; "Kutschme = fluffy cap; "Perhee" = a dish; "Pirogee"; "Holubee" = a dish, rice-filled cabbage rolls. Just as common is the expression "Koretz" for a hundredweight. Other expressions are "prosta" = simple; "napast" = diligent and "choitsch" = at least. Because no expression for afternoon tea was in existence in Polish or Ukranian, the foreign word of "Watschine" with its Bohemian origin is used. Words of the foreign languages are regularly Germanized. That is also true with Polish and Ukranian regional names. Some are phonetically and others are analogously changed. So the nearby river Dnjestr changes to Nistere, Nowesiolo to Oberschola; Kochawia to Kochawene; Kontrowers to Kontroves; Izydorowka to Soderufke; and Juseptyeze to Jesubschlitz. Farm animals receive names as the ones also common to the Egerland. One calls cows: Gscheckl, Goelwe, Weisse, Raeute, Streissle (after a patch of hair on their forehead). A calf is called "Modschel". Horses are named after their color: Braune (brown), Schwartze (black), Schimmel (white), Fuchs (foxy red). - 75 - Geldings are usually called Hans and foals are generally named "Hampel. Tom-cats are called "Hoinz" and "Kodere" and female cats "Mintscherl". Bird names usually only deviate from high German by representing the particular dialect: The Spautz is the sparrow, Kruahe is the crowe. The woodpecker is also called "Baumhacke". On the other hand, plant names are very different from high German: White dead nettle = dead nettle; Kouhbloimle = Dandelion; Ochsaugn = Aster; Maerznboeichele = Snow Drops; Auherringle (Ohrringlein = earring) = Herzblume (heart flower); Pfaele (little horse) _ Monkshood. High German is taught in school and one uses it on special occasions or when Germans from another settlement come to visit. But they don't feel very comfortable with it. Somehow like wearing a stiff shirt. They feel most relaxed when they can speak in their own dialect. They call their dialect the mother language and the high German as the "written language". 6. THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM The Municipality Here, where there is an alliance of Germans amongst other nations, the feeling of congruity is very strong. All men have an eager interest in the community life. Nearly every week, usually on sunday afternoons, the men gather in the community hall. The mayor is the head of the municipality. In former times a mayor and two jurymen were elected from amongst the men for a duration of three years. Later, in accordance to Austrian election laws, and then Polish election laws, 16 aldermen and 8 deputies are elected, who then amongst themselves will elect the mayor. The election takes place within four legislative bodies. These legislative bodies devised depending on the individual tax payment. Presently only 4 farmers belong to the first body; 12 to the second; a greater number to the third and the fourth is comprised of all who do not pay taxes. Each of these legislative bodies has to elect four aldermen and two substitutes. Meetings of the aldermen are announced by the mayor, who notes the meeting time and purpose on paper and has it delivered from house to house. The mayor's position is independent. He has to settle disputes amongst municipality members. His decisions count as much as the decisions of a district judge. He is allowed to give fines up to 15 Zloty and up to one day jail sentences. He is also allowed to employ the local police to execute his sentencing. - 76 - The church committee is elected out of the towns council. This committee is responsible for the upkeep of the church, repairs and acquisitions. There are the following church alliances: THE BROTHERHOOD - it is an elected alliance mostly comprised of older men from the parish. THE RAEUSN (Roses) - presently there are three alliances of the Raeusn in Machliniec. These alliances are comprised of young girls who have already graduated from school. Fifteen girls make up a Rose and is headed by an "elder sister". When a girl marries or dies, the elder sister arranges the ceremonials and the necessary preparations. In former times Roses of men, boys and women existed. A priest introduced this form of alliance, but only the Roses of young girls stayed preserved. The "Zech", which is no longer in existence since the war, has been discussed previously in this book. The community house is located in the middle of the village nearby the church. The community house has a large room for meetings and an office for the mayor. The local police officer is also housed here. He is also the mayor's executive agent. Special meetings are called by the police officer. The police officer carries additional duties as ranger, mailman, undertaker and nightwatchman. In addition he also serves as the organ-blower during sunday church services. As ranger he is responsible to ensure the herd keepers watch the cattle correctly and no damages are done to the fields by the cattle. Upon discovery of damages, he reports them. The expert judge in turn will cost estimate the damages and the owner of the cattle must pay for the damages done. For this duty the ranger receives per Joch one pound of grain annually. This calculates into 600 kilograms of grain annually from a community that owns approximately 1200 Joch. As mailman he has to go once a day to Kochawina where the post office is located. He receives 3 Groschen (pennies) for every postcard and newspaper, and 5 Groschen for every letter he delivers. He delivers the official municipality mail free of charge. As undertaker he receives 3-6 Zloty per grave depending on the size. He receives an annual gift from the community for his services as organ-blower. He keeps the night watch along with a second man. This second man is alternately supplied from the local farms. It is usually a farm-hand or the oldest son of the farmer. It is customary to - 77 - have a "watch-stick" in Machliniec. This stick is send from house to house to determine who is responsible for sending a watchman. If this stick is not passed on in the morning, but in the afternoon, the responsible person must serve night watch for a second night. MARRIAGE CONTRACT AND INHERITANCE Before the war the inheritance was handled in such a manner that on of the children received everything and he or she was responsible to pay his or her brothers and sisters off. It was usually the oldest son, but later on often the youngest son received the entire inheritance. The parents worked on the farm until the oldest children were financially secure. Then the youngest would receive the farm and the responsibility to care of his parents. Their girls usually received money upon marriage and also the other sons, who didn't take over the farm would receive money to enable them to learn a trade or to emigrate. This situation changed after the war. Since the value of money was so unstable, the trust in it had disappeared. Land is the only security and no one is satisfied with money. The non-partitioning of land ceased. Naturally, one of the sons receives the majority of grounds, but the daughters and other sons receive 2-5 Joch parcels of land instead of money. This causes a dissipation of the individual farms, which is not yet quite noticeable in the first generation splits. But it will be quite obvious in the future in terms of farm sizes. The farm sizes will sink below the size to supply a secure living standard. Now it often happens that the parents of the groom and the parents of the bride each put together a few Joch and establish a new farm for the couple. The inheriting son also inherits the provision to take care of his parents. In a typical example we will take a look at the obligations in a marriage contract referring to this particular provision. These provisions are stated similarly in most cases. "Maria Bill (widowed mother of the groom) has the right to the following: The little drawing room with the connecting attic; free usage of kitchen and front room; stable room for two cattle and room for chickens. The east side of the threshing floor in the barn; half of the cellar; a pigsty and the lower half of the granary; a third of the courtyard; a third of the fruit crop; a bed in the vegetable garden; the ground from the barn to the path; half of the grounds behind the footpath and two beds in the garden and 10 kilograms of linseed. As provision, Maria has the right to 400 kilograms grain, 200 kilograms wheat, 150 kilograms oats and 800 kilograms raw potatoes. In addition, all transports of wood, milling goods - 78 - and all other necessary transports to town shall be provided free of charge. The provisionary field must be farmed by Thaddaeus Bill and be fertilized every third year. He must keep a cow in feed during the summer and winter. 10 Joch of field belong to the named farm, namely the "Herrenwald" and the "Wald", which are in the name of the two younger brothers, etc.." We have already mentioned the sharing of inheritance in previous chapters. APPRENTICESHIPS The young people, who are to take up an apprenticeship, are signed into the guild at the beginning of their apprenticeship in the district town of Zydazcow. That is where they also receive their diploma after completing their masterpiece. Blacksmiths and locksmiths must complete their masterpiece right there. SERVANTS One employs servants from new year to new year. As compensation they receive: Two complete weekday outfits (jacket, shirts, pants, wooden shoes, socks, cap - girls also receive scarves and whatever belongs to complete a female outfit) and also 7 Koretz (hundredweights) fruit (usually 2 Koretz wheat and 5 Koretz grain). Most of Machliniec's farm-hands are Ukranians. They mostly serve until they have to join the military. After their military service they marry or emigrate. They do not become old farm-hands. The girls that serve as maids in Machliniec homes are mostly Germans. At present only 3 Ruthenen girls are employed as maids. In the beginning of their employ, one must speak Ukranian with them, just as with the farm-hands. After a short period of time they too have a near natural command of German, so that one hardly notices that it is a foreign language to them. The maids have by far better living conditions compared to the farm-hands. They can sleep in the little drawing room, whereas the farm-hands have to sleep in the barn. The fact that a girl goes to work as a maid has no effect on their social standing. Besides the farm-hand and a maid each farmer generally employs a herds-keeper, who is usually a Ruthene. There is no longer a common ground in Machliniec. The original commons has long been parcelled. But there is usually always a field that lies fallow - 79 - where a farmer can take his cattle. The herds-keeper receives two outfits annually and if he is older and can already lend a hand on the farm, he receives in addition 1 Koretz (hundredweight) of grain. APPENDIX Index of Places of Origin of Machliniec Settlers The places Machliniecs's origin are shown on the following map drawn by Walter Kuhn. Also, here is a listing of villages involved in the emigration. This listing doesn't just reflect the settlement of Machliniec, but the entire parish settlement. In essence, this listing reflects the settlers' places of origin from the year 1830 to 1840. It has been recorded by Walter Kuhn, whom I owe my deepest thanks. The number behind the village names indicate the number of emigration families. Village District Municipality Altwasser (6) Koenigswart Plan Boehm, Roehren (1) Wallern Prachatitz Brand (6) Tachau or Plan Tachau or Plan Christianberg (2) Kalsching Krummau Dinanaberg (1) Pfraumberg Tachau Dreihacken (2) Koenigswart Plan Finkenhammer (1) Koenigswart Plan Galtenhof (2) Tachau Tachau Gottschau (1) Plan Plan Albersdorf (1) Tachau Tachau Hals (1) Tachau Tachau Heiligenkreuz (2) Plan Plan Hesselsdorf (1) Pfraumberg Tachau Hinterkotten (2) Plan Plan Hirschfeld (1) Asch Asch Hostau (1) Hostau Bischofteiniz Hradzen (1) Staab Staab St. Katharina (2) Pfraumberg Tachau Koenigsau (1) Ostgalicia Koenigswart (3) Koenigswart Plan Kuttenpl. Schmelz (2) Plan Plan Labant (2) Pfraumberg Tachau Libomysl (1) Horovice Horovice Mayerhoefen (1) Pfraumberg Tachau Mauthdorf (1) Tachau Tachau Michelsberg (1) Plan Plan Naketendoerflas (1) Plan Plan - 80 - Neudorf (2) Plan or Pfraumberg Plan or Tachau Neuhaeusel (2) Pfraumberg Tachau Meumettl (1) Horovice Horovice Neuzedlisch (1) Tachau Tachau Obersandau (?) Koenigswart Plan Ostowiec (1) : Galicia, Distric Zolkiew Petlarn (1) Tachau Tachau Pfraumberg (3) Pfraumberg Tachau Pirkau (1) Tachau Tachau Plan (1) Plan Plan Poesigkau (1) Hostau Bischofteiniz Promenhof (1) Plan Plan Purschau (4) Tachau Tachau Ringelberg (2) Tachau Tachau Rothaugest (1) Staab Staab Rosshaupt (8) Pfraumberg Tachau Schoenbrunn (2) Tachau Tachau Schoenwald (1) Tachau Tachau Sorghof (3) Tachau Tachau Tachau (1) Tachau Tachau Tachauer Schmelz (1) Koenigswart Plan Thiergarten (4) Tachau Tachau Tissa (1) Tachau Tachau Triebl (1) Plan Plan Urschau (1) Tachau Tachau Waschagruen (1) Plan Plan The following places of origin can be determined of the Machliniecs who are signatories and are mentioned negotiation proxy: on the Menzl (Gottschau) Daniel (Koenigswart) Muehlbauer (Dreihacken) Hummer (Rosshaupt) Koestler (Koenigswart) Angermann (Labant) Weiss (Naketendoerflas) Banzaug (St. Katharina) Fleissner (Dianaberg) Bauer (Brand) Stich (Ringelberg) Spitzner (Rosshaupt) Peternek (Rosshaupt) Bauer (Heiligenkreuz or Neudorf) Huettle (Koenigswart) Stich (Hals) Boehm (Altwasser) Blobner (Rosshaupt) Meyer (Tachau) Wirrl (Koenigsau in Galicia) Meyer (Thiergarten) Kaim (Neudorf) Walter (Thiergarten) Kaim (Neuhaeusel) Terfler (Hesseldorf) Ditz (Purschau) Sturm (Purschau) Iwan (Rosshaupt)